How to Become a Writer in Weeks---Trial Lessons Public

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You will learn how to organize your thoughts, how to rewrite and refine your work, how to make a business out of being an journalist /writer, and so much more!

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GLOBAL WRITERS BUREAU ENGLISH GRAMMAR & WRITING STYLE COURSE LESSON 1 We begin from the beginning, with the traditional Parts of Speech. The sentence can be made up of many words or a few words, but these words will always perform one of eight tasks. These tasks are referred to as the eight parts of speech. Just as bricks are important in a building, Parts of Speech are crucial in sentence construction. Without them, you have no sentence.   Here they are the great eight parts of speech:   Verb : Expresses actions, thought, wishes, etc. Noun: Gives a name to persons, places, things Pronoun: Replaces nouns, usually to avoid irritating repetition of nouns. Adjective: Qualifies or limits nouns or pronouns. (It is not enough to say ‘describes’) Preposition: Shows relationship; is always followed by a noun or pronoun Adverb: Modifies has an altering effect upon) verbs, adjectives, prepositions and other adverbs. Interjection: Expresses sudden emotion. Conjunction: Links two sentences of equal importance, and words.   Here are examples for you: Verb: climb, eat, welcome, be Noun: aircraft, country, lady, hour Adjective: good, British, cold, quick Adverb: quickly, always, approximately Preposition: to, of, at, on Determiner: the, his, some, forty-five Pronoun: we, you, them, myself Conjunction: and, but, so NOTE There is also a small class of words called 'interjections'. They include oh, ah and mhm   It is not the word itself that decides a part of speech, but the job the word does. Some words belong to more than one word class. For example, test can be a noun or a verb. He passed the test. (noun) He had to test the machine. (verb)   To drive our lesson home, here are more details about Parts of Speech:   Verb: A verb is a word used to express action or a state of being (Expresses actions, thought, wishes, etc).   Noun: A noun is a word used to name a person, a place, a thing, or an idea (Gives a name to persons, places, things)   Pronoun: A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun or of more than one noun (Replaces nouns, usually to avoid irritating repetition of nouns).   Adjective: An adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun (Qualifies or limits nouns or pronouns-it is not enough to say ‘describes’)   Preposition: A preposition is a word used to show the relationship of a noun or pronoun to some other word in a sentence (Shows relationship; is always followed by a noun or pronoun)   Adverb: An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb (Modifies, has an altering effect upon verbs, adjectives, prepositions and other adverbs).   Interjection: An interjection is a word used to express emotion. It has no grammatical relation to other words in the sentence( Expresses sudden emotion).   Conjunction: A conjunction is a word used to join words or groups of words (Links two sentences of equal importance, and words).   Nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are identified by the position they occupy within a sentence and by their form-the inflectional endings.   On the other hand, prepositions, conjunctions, articles (determiners), and interjections are identified by their function. They do not have inflectional endings, and they are identified most readily by their use and position relative to other words in the sentence.   Therefore, the part of speech of a word is determined by the way the word is USED in a sentence.   It is not the word itself that decides a part of speech, but the job the word does. Examples with the word PRACTICE. The coach decided that the team needed more practice. (noun) The girl practice every Saturday afternoon. (verb) They will have a practice session after school on Wednesday. (adjective)   Exercise 1: Now, it’s your turn! Give the part of speech of the words in red (italics):   The man had a ROUND face. (A- noun) (B-Adjective) They ROUND the bend at speed. (A- verb) (B-preposition) They skidded ROUND the bend. (A-adverb) (B- preposition) The women played a ROUND of golf. (A-adjective) (B- noun)
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GLOBAL WRITERS BUREAU ENGLISH GRAMMAR & WRITING STYLE COURSE LESSON 2   The verb is the most important part of speech. In any sentence, without the verb – a finite verb – there cannot be a sentence. A verb is said to be finite when it takes a subject, to find the subject of a verb, we ask “who?” or “what?” in front of it:   The large man walks. (Who walks?) Jean was hurt. (Who was hurt?) It will have been found. (What will have been found?) The old barn is creaking. (What is creaking?)   So a sentence must always contain at least two words, a verb and its subject word. Without these there can be no sentence. Length is no guide. Note that, as in (3) above, a verb may contain as many as four words – “will have been found.”   Note that the subject words in the above examples (man, Jean, it, barn) are nouns or pronouns. This is always the case.   Example 2: Decide whether the following groups of words are sentences or not:   I work. (A- yes) (B- no) Taken by surprise at dusk in a little-frequented quarter of the city. (A- no) (B-yes) To make an important decision and carry it out with determination and effort. (A- no) (B- yes) The boy was taken by surprise. (A- no) (B- yes)
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GLOBAL WRITERS BUREAU ENGLISH GRAMMAR & WRITING STYLE COURSE LESSON 3   John drives. John is driven.   In (1) above the subject (John) is the doer of the action. Thereafter the verb is said to be active. In (2) the subject receives the action, and the verb is passive. Active verbs can take objects. To find the object if any) of a verb, we ask, “whom?” or “what?” after the verb:   John drives an old car. (Drives what?) Julie assisted me. (Assisted whom?)   Note that object words (car, me) are, like subject words, always nouns or pronouns. So, when nouns or pronouns appear in sentences, they are very often subject words or object words. Otherwise they are usually following prepositions – in which case they are said to be governed by prepositions they follow:   In the water, after dinner, of anger, with a smile   Exercise 3: Decide (in correct order) the task performed by the nouns and pronouns in the following sentences:   He took the dog for a walk. (A- subject, governed by preposition, object) (B-subject, object, governed by preposition) Out of the house came she. (A- subject, object) (B-governed by preposition, subject) A box of nails has disappeared. (A-subject, governed by preposition) (B-subject, object) What shall we do? (A-subject, object) (B- object, subject)
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GLOBAL WRITERS BUREAU ENGLISH GRAMMAR & WRITING STYLE COURSE LESSON 4   Where there are verbs, there are likely to be adverbs since the most common task of the adverbs is to modify (have an altering effect upon) the verb. The most common of these adverbs are manner, time and place.   He walks (how?) slowly. (Manner) He walks (when?) early. (Time) He walks (where?) there. (Place)   Often a group of words – introduced by a preposition and ending with a noun or pronoun modifies a verb and therefore does the work of an adverb. Such groups of words are called adverb phrases.   He walks (how?) in a leisurely fashion. (manner) He walks (when?) before dawn. (time) He walks (where?) to the river. (place) He walks (why?) because of the bus strike. (reason) He walks (why?) to keep fit. (purpose) He walks (despite what?) despite his bad foot. (concession)   When breaking a sentence down, we usually collect adverbs and adverb phrases which modify the verb and put them under the heading ‘Extension of the verb.’ So we now have four main functions of the verb.   Pamela plays tennis badly.   Exercise 4: In the above sentence:   Pamela is (A- subject) (B- object) Plays is (A- verb) (B- Object) Tennis is (A- object) (B- subject) Badly is (A-verb) (B- ext. of verb)
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GLOBAL WRITERS BUREAU ENGLISH GRAMMAR & WRITING STYLE COURSE LESSON 5   Where there are nouns and pronouns there are likely to be adjectives, since the adjective’s task is to qualify nouns and pronouns. So we will often find adjectives beside subject words, object words, and in the extension of the verb. Adjectives are usually found by asking ‘what kind of?’ ‘which?’ ‘how many?’ ‘how much?’   SUBJECT VERB OBJECT EXT. OF VERB The Quaint Was A box To the shop Old lady Carrying Of fireworks At the corner   Often a group of words – introduced by a preposition and ending with a noun or pronoun qualifies another noun or pronoun such groups of words are called adjectival phrases.   SUBJECT VERB OBJECT EXT. OF VERB A man of Was A box To the shop Middle height Carrying Of fireworks At the corner   Exercise 5: Decide under which heading the CAPITALIZED words or groups of words should be placed.   The ALLEY cat walks WITH A LIMP. (A- subject, ext. of verb) (B-subject, object) The man WITH A LIMP called today. (A- subject) (B- ext. of verb) I have seen MANY battles IN MY LIFE. (A- object, object) (B- object, ext. of verb) He has seen a man OF WEALTH. (A- object) (B- ext. of verb)
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GLOBAL WRITERS BUREAU ENGLISH GRAMMAR & WRITING STYLE COURSE   LESSON 6   The non-finite verb (which cannot take a subject and cannot form a sentence) has two forms. THE INFINITE: This is the root from which all verbs are formed – TO DRIVE, TO BE DRIVEN, TO HAVE DRIVEN, etc. it can do the work of a subject word or object word – so it can do the work of a noun. It can also do the work of an adjective or adverb, since it always contains more than one word, it is usually referred to as a phrase.   TO ERR is human. (what is human) Noun phrase He likes TO SWIM. (likes what?) Noun phrase A roof TO SHELTER us. (what kind of roof?) Adjective phrase He works hard TO SUCCEED. (works hard why?) Adverb phrase   THE PARTICIPLE   This helps finite verbs to form tenses: - DRIVING, BEING DRIVEN, HAVING DRIVEN, etc. by itself, it always does the work of an adjective:   SMILING, the man left the room. (what kind of man?) A phrase introduced by a participle called a participle phrase. It does the work of an adjective phrase and it qualifies the nearest noun or pronoun.   SMILING QUIETLY TO HIMSELF, the man left the room. (what kind of man?) A SMILING-QUIETLY-TO-HIMSELF MAN)   EXERCISE 6: DECIDE WHETHER THE CAPITALIZED WORDS   ARE FINITE VERBS OR NOT: She wants TO JOIN us (A. no) (B. yes) She WANTS to join us (A. no) (B. yes) SOBBING loudly, she sat down, (A. yes) (B. no) She WAS SOBBING loudly. (A. no) (B. yes)
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GLOBAL WRITERS BUREAU ENGLISH GRAMMAR & WRITING STYLE COURSE   LESSON 7   NOW LET US REVISE BRIEFLY   The finite verb is the hub of the sentence. Expressing actions, thoughts, wishes, etc. Nouns and pronouns will usually appear as subject words or object words, or will follow prepositions Adjectives are likely to be found where there are nouns or pronouns because they qualify them Adverbs, in the main, modify verbs. Phrases can do the work of nouns (or pronouns), adjectives and adverbs. Noun phrases are formed from the infinitives of the verb.   Adjective phrases can also be formed from the infinitive, but usually they are introduced by prepositions or in the case of the participle phrase, by a participle.   Adverb phrases are normally introduced by prepositions; the only exception is the adverb phrase of purpose which is introduced by an infinitive. (P. 3162)   The seventh part of speech – the interjection – expresses sudden emotion: Oh! Hurray! Ugh!   The eighth and last part of speech if the conjunction. We shall deal with this in the next lesson.   Trembling slightly, the last batsman of the team walked slowly to the wicket.   EXERCISE IN THE ABOVE SENTENCE THERE IS/ARE (A. three) (B. two) nouns (A. one) (B. two) finite verbs (A. two) (B. three) adverbs (A. two) (B. three) phrases
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GLOBAL WRITERS BUREAU ENGLISH GRAMMAR & WRITING STYLE COURSE   LESSON 8   So far we have revised the SIMPLE sentence – the sentence which contains only one finite verb and subject. The simple sentences can be linked together with a CONJUNCTION. There are four conjunctions: AND, BUT, EITHER-OR, NEITHER-NOR. These conjunctions are purely links. They belong to neither of the simple sentences that they join.   I went AND they joined me later. We played, BUT she worked. EITHER you (must go) OR she must go.   From now, we use the term “sentence” to describe any isolated sentence or any group of sentences linked together. Any individual sentences INSIDE a group of linked sentences will be referred to as CLAUSES (enclosed sentences):   SENTENCE   I WENT AHEAD (clause) and THEY JOINED ME LATER (clause)     Any sentence made up entirely of clauses which are linked with AND, BUT, EITHER-OR, NEITHER-NOR is called a COMPOUND sentence. These conjunctions always link clauses of equal importance (coordinating conjunctions)   EXERCISE   CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER   A simple sentence has (A. many) (B. one) finite verb(s). A coordinating conjunction links clauses of (A. equal) (7. unequal) importance. A coordinating conjunction (A. belongs) (B. does not belong) to some/any clause. A sentence inside a group of linked sentences is called a (A. simple sentence) (B. clause)
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GLOBAL WRITERS BUREAU ENGLISH GRAMMAR & WRITING STYLE COURSE   LESSON 9   Not all (sentences-within-sentences) are of equal importance. Some clauses do the work of parts of speech, just as phrases do. Since no single part of speech can be as important as a sentence, it stands to reason that a clause which does the work of a part of speech will be a less important clause. So such clauses are called DEPENDENT clauses. They can do the work of adverbs, adjectives and nouns;   He walks (how?) AS IF HE WERE TIRED. Adverb clause I know (what?) THAT HE IS HERE. Noun clause I spoke to the girl WHO WAS TALLER THAN OTHERS. (what kind of girl? Which girl?) Adjective clause   None of the italicized clauses above makes full sense by itself. On the other hand, “he walks.” “I know,” “I spoke to the girl” DO make full sense, even by themselves, so they are called MAIN clauses. Sentences containing at least one main clause and at least one subordinate clause are called COMPLEX sentences. Complex sentences should not be confused with COMPOUND sentences which contain main clauses only.   EXERCISE 9:   GIVE THE CORRECT NAME FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING;   He halted. (A. simple sentence) (B. clause) He halted because he was weary. (A. complex sentence) (B. compound sentence) He halted, but they went on. (A. complex sentences) (B. compound sentence) … when I had gone. (A. dependent clause) (B. main clause)
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GLOBAL WRITERS BUREAU ENGLISH GRAMMAR & WRITING STYLE COURSE   LESSON 10   We shall complete our short revision of the first year course by quickly looking at RELATION OF IDEAS. This is most important.   Between any two of our thoughts there exists (or should do) some relation, whether that relation is expressed or not. The sun is now shining, I shall go out. Here the relation is reason. Why shall I go out? – BECAUSE (since, as) the sun is now shining.   It is raining heavily, I shall go out. Here we have the very opposite of reason. You would normally expect a person to go out when the weather is fine – but this person is going out ALTHOUGH (though, even though, despite the fact that) it is raining heavily. The relation is called concession. He worked hard. He wished to succeed. Here, once again, the relation seems to be reason (why did he work hard? – because etc). However, it is more definite than reason. It expresses a conscious purpose. He works hard, SO THAT (i.e. because he has a special intention) he may succeed.   EXERCISE   GIVE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SENTENCE   She practices each day. She is determined to become a great pianist. (A. reason) (B. purpose) She practices each day. Her parents want her to do so. (A. reason) (B. purpose) She practices each day. She has nothing else in particular to do. (A. concession) (B. reason) She practices each day. She hates practicing. (A. reason) (B. concession)
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