Before 1917, Russia had been controlled by the Tsars for many hundreds of years. World War I had caused a great deal of upheaval and political instability in Russia. Lenin and the Bolsheviks rose to power in the Red October Revolution of 1917.
Lenin's government made series of sweeping changes to the social fabric of Russia. Under Lenin's communist system, education was now free to all, gender equality was guaranteed and religion was replaced by total commitment to the state.
The red army, led by Trotsky and Lenin were opposed by the Whites - a collection of groups and individuals and Tsarist loyalists who had no wish to see the rise of communism and the reallocation of wealth under that system.
Russia's economy had suffered enormously through the civil war. During this time, food and factory production were only a fraction of their pre-war output. 10 million Russians died from a famine during the way and 2 million of those from Typhus.
There are a number of important terms to consider as we remember this period in Russian history. The Petrograd Soviet, the October revolution and and The April Theses are among these phrases to be remembered.
Here are ten questions to help your revision of the Russian Revolution and its aftermath, as covered on this course. Test your knowledge about the conditions leading up to and following Lenin's rise to power and the birth of communism.