What were Hitler's main foreign policy aims?
To make Germany into a great power again.
To unite all German speaking people under his rule.
To gain territory for Germany in the east to provide Lebensraum ('living space') for the German people.
To spread communism throughout the world.
To destroy communism
Why did Hitler withdraw Germany from the 1932/33 disarmament conference?
It became obvious that other countries, particularly France, would never disarm for fear of attack.
He had no faith in the League.
He wanted to start a war.
Once they had withdrawn from the disarmament conference, Germany began to rearm, introducing conscription in 1935. Hitler’s excuse was that France had just increased its terms of conscription from 12 to 18 months, which would increase the number of trained soldiers in France.
The ❌ of Germany was clearly against the Treaty of Versailles, so why did Britain and France not act? The only opposition was the formation of the short-lived ❌ Front to protest against the introduction of ❌ in Germany. Also, Soviet ❌, afraid of a strong Germany, joined the League of Nations. Many in Britain felt that the Treaty of Versailles was ❌ and needed to be revised. On the other hand, the French were afraid of German ❌ and wanted to see the Treaty ❌, not weakened, but could not act alone. Differences between Britain and France began to emerge, and Britain had sympathised with Germany rather than France.
Hitler took advantage of these ❌ between Britain and France to further his aims in foreign policy. Although he often ❌ to use force to achieve his aims, every time he acted against the treaty he followed it with promises of ❌. Britain paid more attention to these promises than to the ❌ of the treaty.
In 1934 Hitler signed a -year non-aggression pact with Poland, which guaranteed the boundaries of Poland. This satisfied the Poles that Hitler would not try to take back the . It pleased Britain, who saw it as further proof that Hitler’s aims were , as it meant that Germany had accepted the frontier with Poland set up at . In forming the non-aggression pact with Poland, Hitler broke with tradition. Relations between Germany and Poland had never been particularly good. The pact was probably meant to keep up the of non-aggression and buy Germany time for .
Which of the following was considered to be a set-back for Hitler?
The Manchurian Crisis
Failed Anschluss 1934
The Anglo-German Naval Agreement 1935
Later in ❌ Hitler attempted Anschluss with Austria. He encouraged the Austrian Nazi Party to rebel and this resulted in the murder of the Austrian Chancellor, ❌. It looked as if Hitler’s aim of the ❌ of Germany and Austria (Anschluss) was going to be achieved. It was prevented by ❌ moving his army to the frontier of Austria and guaranteeing Austrian independence. Hitler realised that his army was not strong enough, so he backed down and denied any ❌ with the Austrian Nazi Party.
Under the Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 1935, what percentage of the British fleet was the German army limited to (not including submarines)?
In January 1935 a plebiscite was held in the ❌ to decide whether it should remain under the control of the ❌, return to German control or join ❌. The Saar was inhabited by mainly German people, so the result was never in any doubt. Around ❌ voted to rejoin Germany, ❌ wanted to remain under the control of the League and ❌ wanted to join France. Nazi propaganda made great use of this. Victory in the plebiscite was publicised as the removal of one of the ❌ of Versailles. It was greeted with great celebration in Germany. Hitler announced to the world that all cause of ❌ between France and Germany had now been removed. The return of the Saar to Germany was not ❌. Hitler had kept within the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, which had provided for a plebiscite to be held after ❌ years.
On March 1936 German soldiers marched into the Rhineland. This was against the Treaty of Versailles and the Pact, which the German Government had willingly signed in 1925. Hitler followed up the remilitarization with promises that Germany would sign a -year non-aggression pact and had no further territorial in Europe. Britain, France and the League should have acted against Germany. All that happened was that German action was by the League but, when a vote was cast, only Soviet voted in favour of imposing on Germany.
Why was there no action against Hitler over the remilitarising of the Rhineland? (More than one answer)
The French government was divided and not prepared to act without the support of Britain.
Hitler had chosen his moment carefully. Britain and France were more concerned about Mussolini’s invasion of Abyssinia.
Germany was only moving troops into its own territory. It was not like Mussolini, who had invaded another country.
No one wanted war and people took for more notice of Hitler’s promises of ‘peace’.
Britain felt that Hitler was doing nothing wrong. Many people in Britain also felt that The Treaty of Versailles was unjust and therefore Hitler was right to change it.
In what ways did the Remilitarisation of the Rhineland have an effect on later events? ( more than one answer)
Hitler had reversed the ToV without opposition, giving him more confidence and a stronger position in Germany.
It marked the end of the Stresa Front as Hitler and Mussolini became allies in the Spanish Civil War after the Rome-Berlin Axis.
The French picked up the building of the Maginot Line, a vast series of fortifications on the border between France and Germany.
Together with the Abyssinian crisis, it marked the end of the League of Nations as an effective peace keeping body.
The union of Austria and Germany (❌) had been forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler was born within the boundaries of Austria and had stated in Mein Kampf that he felt the rightful place of Austria was in a ❌ with Germany. In ❌ the Austrian Nazis, encouraged by Hitler, had tried to seize power after the murder of the Austrian Chancellor, Dollfuss. This had been prevented by Mussolini who had been prepared to give ❌ to Austria. By 1938, the situation had changed: Mussolini was now ❌ with Germany and occupied in the ❌, so he was unlikely to give help to Austria. One of Hitler’s aims was to ❌ all German-speaking people under his leadership, and the Austrians were German-speaking.
The ❌ Party remained strong in Austria and early in 1938 there were rumours of another Nazi plot to overthrow the Austrian government. The Austrian Chancellor, ❌, appealed to Hitler for help to end the plotting. Hitler refused and, instead of helping, he put pressure on Schuschnigg and forced him to appoint ❌, the leader of the Nazi Party in Austria, as Minister of the Interior, in charge of the police force. This was followed by a series of riots and demonstrations by the Nazis in Austria, ❌ by Hitler. In spite of his position, Seyss-Inquart supported the demonstrations and did ❌ to stop them.
Which of the following are 'true' of the Anschluss of 1938?
Hitler encouraged the Austrian Nazis to demand a union with Germany.
Hitler ordered the invasion of Austria the Austrian chancellor announces a vote to see what Austrians wanted.
After the invasion, 99% of Austrians voted 'ja' (Yes).
Britain and France responded with a strong condemnation and demanded immediate withdrawal.
Which of the following are ‘true’ of the Anschluss?
It further consolidated Germany’s position in relation to the Sudetenland.
It convinced him that Allies were reluctant to oppose him in his ambitions.
It further enhanced Hitler’s standing & reputation within Germany.
It was clear evidence that Hitler was ‘hell bent’ on World War.