Where does transcription take place?
Where does translation take place?
At the end of mitosis, how many chromosomes are there?
Which statement is true for meiosis?
Meiosis occurs from the splitting of haploid cells.
Meiosis creates 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes
Meiosis creates somatic cells
Meiosis creates gametes
What is this an example of: blonde hair, blue eyes, pale skin, short stature.
What is this an example of: sickle cell disease or Down's Syndrome
Which statement is true about X-linked recessive?
The trait is seen more in females
The father always gives the trait to the son
Females cannot carry the trait
The gene is passed from affected father to all daughters.
Who has a higher Total Body Water (TBW) percentage compared to body weight?
9 month old child
25 year old adult
50 year old obese adult
1 year old obese infant
50 year old adult
Females have more body fat compared to males. Males have more muscle mass compared to females. Who will have a higher total body water (TBW)?
is the main determinant of osmolality...which is also the most common type of solute in extracellular fluid?
is the most common type of solute in the intracellular fluid.
The helps maintain balance of sodium and potassium. This requires .
If you block the venous system, such as in a blood clot, which statement is true about pressure in the VENOUS SYSTEM?
Oncotic pressure increases
Oncotic pressure remains neutral
Hydrostatic pressure increases
Hydrostatic pressure decreases
A person takes in 1500mL and voids 1500mL. Which statement is true?
They are hydrated
They are dehydrated
They are over hydrated
A person takes in 3000mL and voids 1500mL. Which statement is true?
A patient is admitted with congestive heart failure and you hear crackles in the lungs. Which statement reflects this patient's fluid status?
Decreased fluid volume
Fluid volume excess
In a person with high blood sugar, such as a diabetic, which statement is likely true for their fluid status?
In a patient with tachycardia and hypotension, which of the following statements is likely true regarding their fluid status.
Patient complaining of thirst with poor skin turgor
They are over hydrated.
Patient has pitting edema
Who is at higher risk for dehydration?
An obese infant < 1 year
An obese 30 year old
An obese 50 year old
An obese 70 year old
Which is a complication of edema?
Wounds heal slowly
Decreased Blood Pressure
What happens when you give a person who is dehydrated a hypertonic solution?
Decreased capillary oncotic pressure
Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
What type of solution would you use to treat someone who is dehydrated?
A patients pH is 7.31. This is:
Which is fastest at acid-base compensation?
Your patient has the following results from an ABG test: pH 7.14, PaCO2 52, HCO3 25. Which of the following describes this patient?
Your patient has the following results from an ABG test: pH 7.14, PaCO2 41, HCO3 18. Which of the following describes this patient?
I can have hypoxemia but not be anemic.
I can be anemic and not be hypoxic.
I can have hypoxia without being anemic.
You can never have hypoxemia, anemia, AND hypoxia.
Which is an example of an acute inflammation?
Who is the first WBC responder to a site of injury?
Which of the following statements is not true about B and T lymphocytes?
Lymphocytes are part of the adaptive immunity
They endow the body with long-term immunity
Lymphocytes make up 20-35% of circulating WBCs
They are the first line of defense
Which of the following is not a WBC?
Hematologic cancers like leukemia cause:
Which cells make antibodies?
What occurs during multiple myeloma?
Increase in osteoblast activity
Increase in osteoclast activity
Decreased GI absorption
Allergies are which type of hypersensitivity?
What laboratory test determines what medication will destroy an organism?
Complete blood count
Culture and sensitivity
An overreaction of the immune systems is also called:
Which test is the earliest indicator for HIV?
How is cholesterol obtained?
Liver and gall bladder synthesis
Liver synthesis only
Diet and gall bladder synthesis
Diet and liver synthesis
Which of the following accurately identifies risk factors for cardiovascular disease?
Male gender, Family history of CV disease, Obesity, history of tobacco use
Family history of CV disease, history of autoimmune disease, female gender
Female gender, history of tobacco use, low stress
Male gender, history of tobacco use, lack of exercise, history of traumatic brain injury
When blood flows from a larger area of vessel diameter to a smaller area of diameter, blood pressure:
Does not change
Stimulation of the SNS does what to heart rate?
Cardiac output is determined by:
PVR and HR
HR and BP
BP and pulse pressure
PVR and BP
Which of the following is NOT considered a secondary cause of HTN?
Coarctation of the aorta
Chronic kidney disease
Which client meets the definition of orthostatic hypotension?
Client 1: BP laying 130/90, Standing 121/90
Client 2: BP laying 118/80, standing 120/80
Client 3: BP laying 140/90, standing 130/80
Client 4: BP laying 112/76, standing 112/70
Which of the following is true regarding aortic dissection?
Females are more affected than males
Males are more affected than femals
Both sexes are affected equally by the condition
What is the most common symptom of Peripheral Artery Disease?
Which of the following statements is true regarding circulation?
The pulmonary system is high pressure and the systemic system is low pressure.
Both systems are low pressure
The pulmonary system is low pressure and the systemic system is high pressure
Both systems are high pressure
Which statement best differentiates cardiac afterload from cardiac preload?
Cardiac afterload is the volume of blood in the heart at the end of diastole
Cardiac afterload is the amount of resistance that the ventricle must overcome
Cardiac afterload is the factor that affects cardiac output
Cardiac afterload is the amount of blood that enters the right atrium
Which symptom is present in right sided heart failure?
Blood in the lungs
Edema in ankles and feet
Which symptom is present in left sided heart failure?
Swelling in hands
How is systolic dysfunction different from diastolic dysfunction?
In systolic dysfunction, the ventricle has difficulty ejecting blood out of the chamber.
In systolic dysfunction, the ventricle has difficulty relaxing and is unable to expand fully
In systolic dysfunction, the ventricle pumps out insufficient blood volume.
In systolic dysfunction, the ventricle has low blood volume.
Which lobe would a patient most commonly aspirate into, due to its anatomical position?
Each hemoglobin molecule can carry oxygen molecules
When PO2 falls below mmHg, hemoglobin quickly drops off all oxygen molecules.
Ventilation-perfusion mismatching occurs wen air cannot flow into an alveolus or blood flow around an alveolus is altered. One of the most common etiologies for this is:
The most common virus to cause community acquired pneumonia is:
Hospital Acquired Pneumonia is a common cause of mortality for hospital patients. What is the most common microbe in this type of pneumonia?
Right ventricular failure caused by pulmonary disease is also known as:
Right ventricular hypertrophy
A spirometer measures the amount of air moved into and out of the lungs. The maximal amount of air exhaled is called:
The most common cause of pulmonary edema is:
Left ventricular heart failure
Right ventricular heart failure
Playing tennis is more likely to cause a:
Playing football is more likely to cause a:
Which diagnostic test is best to see soft tissue damage?
What is true of bursitis?
It is caused by overuse of the tendon
It is caused by damage of the ligaments and bone
It is caused by underuse of the muscles
It is caused by inflammation of the bursa
Where are you more likely to see melanomas?
Back of hands
What is the difference between allergic dermatitis and irritant dermatitis?
Irritant dermatitis is contagious to others if they have an open wound.
Irritant dermatitis is an immunological inflammatory process
Allergic dermatitis is the most common type of dermatitis
Allergic dermatitis initiates a cell-mediated response
Your patient is a 20 year old male who just started a new running program. What type of fracture would you expect to find?
If our osteoclasts work faster than our osteoblasts as you get older, you are at risk for:
Increased bone production
A 78 year old female has a fracture of her pelvis. The likely cause is:
What type of fracture would you expect from a 78 year old female with osteoporosis?
Your patient with a right hand fracture is complaining of severe right hand pain and has numbness and tingling. You suspect:
This is a normal process of healing
The fracture has increased
An altered inflammatory response leading to excessive fluid accumulation
A 56 year old male with a recent history of a right hip repair after a fall is admitted for SOB and tachycardia. What do you think is occurring?
You overhear the doctor say the patient has a dowager's hump. You know that this is:
A life threatening condition
The same as kyphosis
The same as a bursae
Caused by tendonitis
Lice can "jump or fly" so just being around someone puts you at risk for getting lice.
The number one cause of a hemorrhagic stroke is:
Heart valve defect
Which of the following symptoms would you almost always see if your patient developed a subarachnoid hemorrhage?
Decreased blood pressure
Worst headache of their life
Upper extremity paralysis
Select all of the following risk factors for a stroke:
Heavy alcohol use
If a patient had a TIA, which statement is always true?
They had an ischemic episode
They had ischemia
They had a blood clot but then it moved
Irreversible damage has occurred
You are taking care of a newly admitted patient who had neural tissue death on CT scan, but all of his symptoms have resolved. What is the best answer to tell him about his diagnosis?
He had a TIA because his symptoms resolved
He had an ischemic attack with death of brain tissue
He had a stroke with death of brain tissue
He had a TIA which is lack of oxygen to the brain
Your patient with a subarachnoid hemorrhage has issues with their CSF because of:
Constricted blood vessels
Impaired venous system
According to the TNM system, stage the following:
A 2.5 cm tumor in the R breast, palpable lymph nodes, and a CT scan that reveals metastasis in the liver.
T1, N0, M0
T2, N1, M1
T1, N1, M1
T2, N0, M1
Cancer cells are suited for metastasis because they secrete:
Von Willebrand factor
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
This form of lung cancer grows rapidly, and often has already metastasized when the patient presents to their PCP
Lung cancer in situ
Small cell lung cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer
An individual who smoked 2 packs per day from age 20-60 has a(n) pack year history.
Both BRCA1 and BRCA2 have defective ________.
Tumor suppressor genes
Both A and B
Most breast cancer lesions are found in this quadrant of the breast
Which of the following accurately depicts symptoms of liver cancer?
Weight gain, fever, increased appetite, pulmonary edema
Weight loss, increased appetite, vision changes
Weight loss, fever, ascites, jaundice
Weight loss, chest pain, dyspnea
The most common GI disorder in the US is:
GERD is most commonly present in which patient populations?
Infants and adults over 40
Infants and teenaged children
Adults over 40 and patients with neuro disorders
Adults over 65 years old
Your patient is admitted for Upper GI bleed. Their SBP has decreased from 132 to 110 and their heart rate has increased from 84 to 108. You can anticipate the provider will order as the priority intervention:
Fluids to prevent impending shock
Platelets to help blood clot
H2 blockers for stomach acid secretion
Albumin to pull fluid
You are assigned to care for a patient that will be admitted for a chronic upper GI bleed. What signs and symptoms or findings will you expect?
Increased BP and elevated Hgb
Decreased BP and bradycardia
Decreased BP and flushed skin
Decreased BP and fatigue
A patient says, "I have had abdominal pain, bloating, visual changes, and bone pain over the past 3-6 months." On assessment, the nurse finds: weight loss and suspects an autoimmune hypersensitivity disorder. Which test does the nurse recommend for further confirmation?
Serology celiac panel
CT of abdomen
Barium contrast series
Which is the most common etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in adults?
Escherichia coli (E.Coli)
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)
Pancreatitis is commonly caused by
Biliary tract disease and alcohol abuse
Hyperlipidemia and HTN
Which is a normal urine output?
400 mL per hour for 4 hours
Which of the following are not common manifestations of a UTI
Confusion in the elderly
Which of the following is NOT a sign of nephrotic syndrome?
Low oncotic pressure
Which of the following is not a clinical manifestation of renal colic?
If someone says they have flank pain, this is associated with:
Problem with the liver
Problem with the kidney
Problem with a small bladder
Problem with chronic back pain
Who is the least likely to get a UTI?
Spinal cord injury patient
Someone with kidney stones
An elderly women
A person with pneumonia
Who is more at risk for UTI?
What lab values would you expect with glomerulonephritis?
Increase serum creatinine, decrease GFR
Increase serum creatinine, increased GFR
Decreased serum creatinine, decreased GFR
Decreased serum creatinine, increased GFR
In acute kidney injury, which type of acid base abnormality would you expect to see?
What happens with fluid and electrolytes shifts with chronic kidney injury?
Decreased extracellular fluid
Increased extracellular fluid
Glomerular filtration rate does not provide information on the cause of the kidney disease.
Endocrine disorders are easy to diagnose by the clinical manifestations.
When can someone develop a goiter?
Either thyroid hypo/hyperfunction
None of the above
What is this a picture of?
In primary adrenal insufficiency, adrenal cortical hormone levels are:
In primary adrenal insufficiency, how much damage has occurred to the adrenal glands before it is diagnosed?
Cushing disease and Cushing syndrome are the same thing.
Cushing disease refers to:
Increased cortisol due to a thyroid tumor
Increased cortisol due to medications
Increased ACTH due to a tumor
Decreased cortisol due to medications
The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is:
Increased cortisol due to a tumor
Why is the TSH elevated with hypothyroidism?
Due to positive feedback
Due to negative feedback
Due to hypothalamus not working
Due to adrenal glands not working
Which of the following is not a reason people can get SIADH
Traumatic brain injury
Which disease would have a urine [Na] that is high?
Which disease would have a serum [Na] that is high?
Which disease would you expect hyponatremia?
A person who is thin and young can only have Type I Diabetes.
Which of the following accurately identifies the metabolic syndrome?
Elevated waist circumference, increased HDL, reduced triglycerides
Reduced HDL, elevated triglycerides, and increased waist circumference
Reduced HDL and waist circumference with increased BP
Elevated triglycerides, decreased waist circumference, decreased BP
The best test to assess a patient's glucose level over the past few months is:
Finger stick test while in the office
Basic metabolic panel
Complete Blood Count
All of the following are complications of DM except:
Increased susceptibility to infection
Increased incidence of cholelithiasis
All of the following are true regarding Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation, except:
DIC is most commonly caused by sepsis and shock
DIC causes severe bleeding
DIC causes blood clotting
DIC is diagnosed by a high platelet count
Which of the following is one way sickle cell anemia can cause disease?
Sickled cells occlude the blood vessels preventing transportation of oxygen to tissues and organs
Sickled cells cause vasodilation, leading to hypotension
Red blood cells affected by sickle cell anemia have a longer than average lifespan, which results in a deterioration of oxygen carrying capacity
Sickled cells do not cause secondary complications, such as stroke and myocardial infarcion
A patient is suspected of having systemic lupus erythmatous. The nurse monitors her, knowing that which of the following is one of the initial characteristic signs of SLE?
Low temperature reading
Rash on the face and across the bridge of the nose
How do you develop shingles?
Receiving the varicella vaccine
Through exposure to someone with shingles in the blister phase and subsequently contracting the varicella zoster virus
Varicella zoster virus
All of the above
Dilated cardiomyopathy can cause heart failure due to?
Left ventricle atrophy
Mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
Increased systolic dysfunction
Thickening of the cardiac ventricle walls
What is the most common cause of mitral valve prolapse?
Excess valve tissue
Stiffening of the valve
Bacterial or viral infection within the valve
In ventral septal defect, children may initially present with hypertrophy of the:
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a combination of four cardiac defects. Which of the four is least responsible for the hypoxia that results from the condition?
Pulmonary artery stenosis
Ventral septal defect
Overriding large ascending aorta
What is the primary cause of inflammation in endocarditis?
Normal wear and tear
Which of the following is a risk factor for Chlamydia?
Unprotected sexual intercourse
Swimming in public pools and freshwater lakes
Receiving a blood transfusion
Sharing a beverage with someone who has chlamydia
Herpes Simplex Virus 2 can be transmitted:
When you have genital sores
When you have sores in your mouth
When you don't have sores
From mother to fetus
What is the body's response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the lungs?
Pulmonary capillary damage leads to alveolar injury
Macrophages release enzymes that cause lung tissue necrosis
Hyperglycemia results, leading to diabetic ketoacidosis
Fluid builds up in the alveoli, impairing oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, leading to hypoxia
Cystic Fibrosis mainly affects which body system?
B and C
When Bordetella pertussis is inhaled, the pertussis toxin is released. What does this toxin do to the airways?
Large toxins cause airway obstruction in the alvioli
Causes airway inflammation
Causes pulmonary edema
What are some common causes of gout?
Excessive alcohol consumption
Purine rich diet
A, B, and C
Which is not a typical symptom of psoriasis?
Red, thickened patches of skin
Silver white scales
Huntington disease is...
Caused by a genetic defect in which the DNA unnecessarily repeats the CAG sequence
An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease
An X-linked dominant disease, more common in males
A disorder of the central nervous system that affects movement and occurs primarily in children
The following is not among early or late clinical problems associated with with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis:
Difficulties with ADLs
Dyspnea and associated breathing problems
High urine output
Diane is 70 years old and was recently diagnosed with Alzheimer's Disease. It was identified as the "early stage" and she is very worried about the diagnosis since she witnessed her mother experience the disease as well. What changes in the brain would we see in Diane?
An increase in brain size
Neurofibrillary tangles and beta-amyloid plaques in the brain
Increased cellular communication and repair
Decrease in pineal gland size
Which of the following scenarios would NOT lead to peritonitis?
A case of untreated appendicitis
Pneumothorax following pneumocystic pneumonia infection
Unhygienic peritoneal dialysis
An infected fallopian tube
What is not true about neonatal jaundice?
Most babies experience some form of jaundice
The skin turns yellow due to build-up of bilirubin in the blood
Most babies are still jaundiced after one month of age
If the baby is not eating well, they have a higher risk of the condition
Why is mid-back pain associated with pyelonephritis and not a lower urinary tract infections?
Inflammation of the kidneys causes tenderness mid-back
Pyelonephritis is more common in older adults
Increased urination causes back pain
Mid-back pain is not associated with pyelonephritis
What is the difference between Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome?
Cushing's Syndrome is caused by hyperactive adrenal gland, secreting excess cortisol
Cushing's Syndrome can result from Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Cushing's Disease is a result of an ACTH-secreting pituitary tumor, resulting in excess cortisol
Both A and C
Which of the following is NOT an effect of elevated parathyroid hormone secretion?
Serum calcium is increased due to bone resorption
Intestinal absorption of calcium is decreased
Extra calcium is built up in the kidneys, causing stones
Excretion of calcium through urination is decreased