What is apoptosis important for?
What are the morphological changes in cells undergoing necrosis? What is the cut off for reversibility?
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
What are mitochondria? What does it have to maintain?
What happens when the mitochondria starts to swell?
What are the results of mitochondrial swelling?
What are the final stages of cell death?
What are free radicals?
What are the most important ones in the biological systems?
What are their half lives?
What is a reperfusion injury?
What causes reperfusion injury?
What is the function of xanthine dehydrogenase?
What is ATP (ADP + AMP) converted into? What is this then converted into and by what?
What is GTP (GDP + GMP) converted into?
What is xanthine converted into? By what?
What happens to xanthine dehydrogenase when cellular O2 is low?
What does xanthine dehydrogenase use as its coenzyme? What does this lead to the production of? How is this dealt with?
How does xanthine oxidase differ from xanthine dehydrogenase?
Concerning xanthine what happens during hypoxia?
What happens when O2 is then returned to ischaemic tissue?
What are crucial areas which are particularly damaged by free radicals? (3)
What might be used to treat reperfusion injury? What is the possible drawback of this?
What is apoptosis? When are you likely to see this? Why is this important?
Give two examples of environmental triggers which would result in apoptosis?
How does apoptosis differ from necrosis in terms of number of cell affected?
Aside from dealing with damage what is apoptotic cell death important for?
What are the key differences in cellular morphology between apoptotic and necrotic cell death?
Compare between apoptosis and necrosis:
2) Cell cytology
5) Effects in tissue
When is apoptosis needed in development?
How can you visualise apoptosis?
Why is apoptosis important in neurogenesis?
Why is apoptosis favourable over necrosis?
When is apoptosis useful in adults?
How many cells are lost in an adult per day?
What would happen if there was no tissue turnover?
What do cellular adaptations include?
What are the possible types of these adaptations? (6)
What is atrophy? How are they deficient? How does this affect tissue?
What are 6 examples of causes of cellular atrophy?
Which tissue type is particularly susceptible to atrophy?
What conditions can cause brain tissue atrophy? (4)
Where is atrophy very physically obvious? What can cause this? (2)
Where is hypertrophy most usual?
In which type of muscle is hypertrophy bad?
What can cause cardiac hypertrophy?
Why is cardiac hypertrophy bad?
How can you fix hypertrophy?
When do you see cardiac hypertrophy in the left ventricle?
What causes cardiac hypertrophy in the right ventricle?
Define hyperplasia. Where is this seen in normal physiology?
How does hyperplasia related to hypertrophy? What tissues does it occur in?
What are the different types of adult hyperplasia?
How much of the liver has to remain in order for it regenerate to its full original size?
What is aplasia?
What would you expect to see in bone marrow aplasia (aplastic aplasia)?
What other organs are affected by aplasia? What are the causes of aplasia? How can this be used therapeutically?
What are the side effects of chemotherapy? Why?
What is metaplasia?
What is the most common type of metaplasia? Why does this happen? What does this result in?
What is the other type of metaplasia? What causes this?
What does dysplasia mean?
What often leads into dysplasia? What does dysplasia often lead to?