270 Winglets? (Fig. 8)
O Do not significantly affect lateral and directional stability.
O Improve lateral and directional stability.
O Improve spin recovery.
O Improve roll rates.
271 How would forward movement of C of G affect manoeuvre stability?
O Decrease in every phase of flight.
O Increases or decreases pending on weight.
O None of them.
272 What would be the effect of increasing camber?
O Longitudinal stability would be unaffected.
O CL would decrease;
O Angle of attack would increase.
O Angle of incidence will be iprooved..
273 How does anhedral affect stability?
O Decreases lateral stability,
O Increases directional stability,
O Decreases longitudinal stability.
O Makes difficult to steer on the ground.
274 Given the following data for C-182.
Vs CLEAN CAS 56 kts
Determine the stall speed with flaps retracted, at 60 degrees and 70 degrees respectively. Use graph. Fig. 3
O 79 kts 97 kts
O 85 kts 104 kts
O 56 kts 64 kts
O 62 kts 70 kts
275 Α wing with washout would have…………………………………?
O the tip incidence less than the root incidence.
O the tip incidence greater than the root incidence.
O the tip camber less than the root camber.
O the tip chord less than the root chord.
276 The stalling speed of an aeroplane is mostly affected by……………………………………..……?
O variations in aeroplane΄s loading.
O variations in flight altitude.
O Changes in pitch attitude.
O Changes with atmospheric pressure.
277 A stall warning device must be set to operate:
O at speed 5% to 10% above the stalling speed.
O at the stalling speed.
O at a speed more than 15%, above the stalling speed.
O at speed bellow the stalling speed.
278 Frost covering the upper surface of an aeroplane wing, will usually cause:
O The aeroplane to stall, at an angle of attack that is lower than normal.
O Drag factor, is of great importance, that sufficient speed can not be achieved during the take off.
O Is of no importance.
O The aeroplane to stall, at an angle of attack quite higher than normal.
279 The following graph represents (Fig.9)
O The coefficient of lift to its max value of CLmax at critical angle of attack.
O The aerofoil induced drag in relation to angle of attack.
O The aerofoil lift/drag ratio.
O The aerofoil product in relation to bank angle.
280 An aeroplane will stall at the same……………………………………………………?
O angle of attack regardless of altitude, with relation to the horizon.
O angle of attack and altitude, with relation to the horizon.
O airspeed regardless of the altitude, with relation to the horizon.
O indicated airspeed regardless of altitude, bank angle and load factor.
281 (Fig. 10) Vmd occurs when……………………………………………………….?
O the induced and parasite drag are equal.
O the induced drag is greater than parasite drag.
O the parasite drag is greater than the induced drag.
O the parasite drag is greater than the induced drag
282 Refer in the L/D polar diagram (Fig11……….)
Red curve represents………..(i)…………………………....
Blue curve represents……….(ii)…………………………..
Black curve represents………(iii)…………………….…
O (i) parasite (ii) induced (iii) total
O (ii) parasite (i) induced (iii) total
O (i) total (ii) induced (iii) parasite
O (i) total (ii) parasite (iii) induced
283 With reference to the aircraft, total drag curve in Fig. 12:
O Point B is the stall speed and point A is the min drag speed
O Point B is the stall speed and point D is Vg
O Point B is the min drag speed and point D is the stall speed
O Point A is the VA and point C is the min power speed.
284 The temperature at 11000ft AMSL is forecast to be -5°C: compared to the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) this is;
O ISA +2°C.
O ISA -1°C.
O ISA -3°C.
O ISA +4°C.
285 The International Standard Atmosphere specifies:
O standardised atmospheric values of temperature, pressure and density for all altitudes
O values of actual conditions of temperature, pressure and density that exist at all levels of the atmosphere.
O sea level conditions of atmospheric temperature, pressure and density.
O ambient conditions of atmospheric temperature, pressure and density for all altitudes.
286 The variable physical properties of the atmosphere that affect aircraft performance are:
O temperature, pressure, density and humidity.
O temperature, pressure and humidity.
O pressure, humidity and oxygen content.
O pressure, humidity, temperature and specific gravity.
287 The International Standard Atmosphere assumes that the ambient temperature:
O decreases with increase in height above the Earth.
O will decrease with height only if an inversion layer is present.
O increases with increase in height above the Earth.
O increases with decrease,in random maner in height above the Earth.
288 Air density which is integral to airframe and engine performance, is proportional to:
O pressure, and inversely proportional to temperature.
O temperature, and inversely proportional to pressure
O humidity and temperature.
O pressure and temperature
289 The percentage oxygen content of the atmosphere at higher altitudes compared to that at lower altitudes:
O remains constant, but the lower atmospheric pressure at altitude makes it more difficult for the body to absorb oxygen
O falls, but since the quantity is adequate, the fall has little effect on the pilot at any altitude.
O decreases due to the decreased air pressure.
O increases slightly up to the tropbpause above which it remains constant.
290 A reduction of air pressure while humidity and temperature are maintained at constant levels will:
O cause the air density to decrease.
O not affect the air density if the temperature remains constant.
O cause the air density to increase.
O cause air density to fluctuate whilst pressure is changing due to adiabatic heating and cooling.
291 The principal constituent gases that make up the Earth's atmosphere are:
O nitrogen, oxygen and water vapour.
O hydrogen, carbon dioxide, helium and oxygen.
O oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water vapour.
O carbon monoxide, hydroxide nytrogen and air.
292 When compared with perfectly dry air at the same temperature and pressure, very moist or saturated air will have:
O a lower density.
O a greater density.
O a similar density.
O an imbeure density.
293 Air density reduces with altitude because:
O the pressure falls.
O of the fall in water vapour content.
O the temperature falls.
O of adiabatic cooling.
294 -If air is maintained at a constant temperature and volume while its pressure is increased, its density will:
O remain constant because the volume is constant.
O vary only with changes in the lapse rate.
295 The definition of relative humidity is:
O the amount of water vapour present in the air compared to the maximum amount of water vapour the air could hold at
the same temperature. This is expressed as a percentage.
O the percentage of water in a measured volume of air irrespective of temperature.
O the relative amount of water vapour in the air at any time and any temperature but specific volume.
O the water vapour density at any temperature compared with its density at saturation temperature.
296 If air is maintained at a constant temperature and volume while its pressure is decreased, its density will:
O remain constant because pressure will have no effect on density at a constant volume and temperature.
297 The onset of a stall is characterised by:
O a nose pitch down and aircraft sink.
O a nose pitch up and aircraft sink.
O yaw tendency and flutter.
O sink and spin.
298 The pressure of air flowing under a wing in straight and level flight when compared with the airflow over the wing will be:
O the same at low airspeed but higher at high airspeed.
O the same at low airspeed but lower at high airspeed.
299 An aircraft in straight and level not accelerating flight is in equilibrium when:
O the weight equals lift and the drag equals the thrust.
O the lift equals the drag and the thrust equals the weight.
O the weight equals the drag and the horizontal component of lift equals the thrust.
O the weight equals the lift couple and the drag equals the thrust couple.
300 A coefficient of lift reaches its maximum value:
O at or just prior to the stall.
O between 4° and 6° angle of attack in straight and level flight.
O at the minimum drag speed(Vmd) in the clear configuration.
O at the minimum power required (Vmp).
301 The reason for 'washout' being designed into an aeroplane wing is to:
O cause the inboard section of the wing to stall first.
O equalize the angle of incidence all over the wing.
O cause the outboard section of the wing to stall first.
O prevent progressive wing stall and loss of control.
302 Complete the following statement.
The……….....(i)……………...wake turbulence is generated by a............(ii)…......aircraft flying at……....(iii)….....airspeed.
O (i) greatest (ii) heavy (iii) slow
O (i)greatest (ii)light (iii)high
O (i)least (ii)heavy (iii)slow
O (i)least (ii)light (iii)moderate
303 An aircraft that has been over stressed on the ground surface:
O must be inspected by a qualified engineer before the next flight.
O must be inspected by the pilot in command and if no defect is found, he will not be required to make an appropriate entry in the aircraft technical log the mechanics hold.
O must be inspected by at least two pilots licenced on the type, one of whom must be the pilot in command.
O must be subjected to a duplicate inspected by two engineers before the next flight.
304 An increase in aircraft loading amongst other things will:
O cause an increase in the stalling speed.
O effect the stalling angle.
O cause a decrease in the stalling speed.
O cause an increase in the flapless stalling speed but increase in the clean stalling angle.
305 I If aircraft is maintaining a constant angle of attack but increases its airspeed, this will cause:
O an increase of both lift and drag.
O a decrease in lift but an increase in drag.
O no change in lift generated by the wing, but an increase in airframe drag.
O an increase only in lift.
306 The speed at which a particular aircraft stalls whilst in straight and level flight is 80kt. The approximate stalling speed of the same aircraft in a 60° bank turn would be:
307 Study the picture .(Fig. 14). The total pressure entering the the pitot tube represented by the arrow is:
O static pressure + dynamic pressure.
O pitot pressure + dynamic pressure.
O pitot pressure + partial pressure.
O pitot + pressure gradient.
308 An aeroplane wing will stall at a given:
O angle of attack
O angle of incidence
O angle of lift
O dihedral angle
309 Study the vector diagram (Fig.13), representing the forces in a steady turn.
310 A stalling angle of attack is increased by 'slots' because:
O they delay the break up of the smooth airflow over the wing.
O they dump positive pressure airflow from under the wing.
O they increase the effective wing area at the leading edge
O they decrease the ineffective wing area at the leading edge.
311 The consequence of an aircraft with its centre of gravity positioned at or very close to its designed aft limit could be:
O greatly reduced applied elevator force during the flare.
O an increased stalling angle.
O an increased sense and feeling and applied elevator force during rotation.
O an increased sense and feeling and applied rudder force during rotation.
312 As an aeroplane's True Air Speed (TAS) increases:
O induced drag decreases and parasite drag increases.
O parasite drag decreases and induced drag increases.
O induced drag increases and total drag decreases.
O induced drag decreases and parasite drag decreases.
313 Induced drag:
O is reduced as airspeed increases.
O is not a factor of airspeed.
O is increased as airspeed increases.
O is reduced as angle of bank increases.
314 A fixed trim tab such as those commonly found on ailerons should:
O be adjusted on the ground after a flight test to achieve laterally level flight.
O not be adjusted once set by the manufacturer.
O be adjusted on the ground after a test flight to achieve longitudinally level flight.
O only be adjusted after maintenance inspection.
315 The purpose of a control surface anti-balance tab is to:
O ensure that the pilot's physical control load increases with increase of control surface deflection.
O ensure the centre of pressure is maintained forward of the hinge line.
O trim the tolerance of trim tab.
O ensure that the pilot's physical control load decreases with increase of control surface deflection.
316 A flying control surface is fitted with a simple trim tab. Once the trim tab is set in flight, any movement of the flying control surface will result in the:
O trim tab position remaining constant relative to the control surface.
O trim tab moving to a new position and will have to be re-set.
O trim tab position remaining constant relative to the airflow.
O trim tab moving in the opposite direction to the main flying control surface.
317 A factor that determines an aeroplane's stalling speed for a given weight at any angle is:
O the square root of the load factor.
O the square of the wing area.
O the square root of the weight.
O the square root of aspect ratio.
318 The angle of attack of an aerofoil may be defined as:
O the angle subtended by the aerofoil chord line and the relative airflow.
O the angle subtended by the aerofoil chord line and the longitudinal axis.
O the angle subtended by the aerofoil mean chord line and the horizon.
O the angle subtended by the aerofoil mean chord line and the ground surface.
319 In straight and level flight, the air flow over the wing's upper surface compared with the air flow unaffected by the wing will have:
O a greater velocity.
O low angular velocity.
O a reduced velocity.
O a relative conformal velocity.
320 When generating the same amount of lift, the stalling angle of attack with trailing edge flaps extended, if measured between the relative airflow and the aerofoil cord line with flaps retracted, will be:
O the same.
321 Which of the following gives an aeroplane directional stability?
O The fin.
O The rudder.
O The rudder trim tab.
O The trim tab and anti-tab.
322 The movement of an aeroplane about its normal (vertical) axis is known as:
O side slipping.
323 When an aircraft is fitted with a balance tab controlled rudder movement of the rudder bar to the right to yaw the aircraft to the right will move the balance tab to the:
O left and the rudder to the right.
O right and the rudder to the left.
O right and rudder to the right.
O left and rudder to the left.
324 Control surface mass balance:
O prevents flutter of that control in the higher speed range.
O eases the hand movements during the power-on stall
O makes the control easier for the pilot to move.
O makes the control more difficult for the pilot to move.
325 High speed flying control flutter is eliminated by fitting:
O mass balance forward of the control surface hinge.
O a special assembly to the elevator.
O balance tabs to the leading edge.
O balance tabs to the trailing edge.
326 A flying control surface that is aerodynamically balanced:
O has an area of the control surface forward of the hinge line.
O has been modified with a trim tab..
O uses a balance weight forward of the hinge line.
O uses a balance weight aft of the hinge line.
327 Differential aileron where the up-going aileron moves further than the down-going aileron is a design feature that helps to counteract:
O adverse aileron drag.
O the higher degree of spiral diving.
O lateral positive stability.
O lateral instability
328 The secondary effects of rudder and aileron are:
O rudder > roll ailerons > yaw and spiral dive
O rudder > turn ailerons > roll and spiral dive
O rudder > adverse yaw ailerons > skid
O rudder > yaw ailerons > turn and spin
329 When an aeroplane is disturbed from its established flight path, for instance when entering turbulent air, it is said to have positive stability if it consequently:
O re-establishes its original flight path without any pilot input.
O remains in the new flight path.
O becomes further displaced from its original flight path.
O oscillates about its original flight path without leaving its flight path.
330 When an aeroplane is disturbed from its trimmed attitude, for instance when entering turbulent air, it is said to have neutral stability if it consequently:
O remains in the new attitude.
O oscillates about its original attitude before eventually settling in its original attitude.
O immediately re-establishes its original attitude.
O departs further from its original attitude and diverts.
331 The centre of pressure by design is behind the aircraft centre of gravity which is balanced in straight and level flight by:
O the tailplane producing a downward force.
O the tailplane producing an upward force.
O neither an upward nor downward tailplane force as the aircraft will be in equilibrium.
O either an upward or downward tailplane force as the aircraft will not be in equilibrium.
332 A balance tab is an auxiliary surface fitted to a main control surface, operated:
O independently by the pilot, to remove excessive control loads.
O automatically to assist the pilot in moving the controls.
O automatically to provide feel to the controls.
O artificial feel to the controls.
333 With flaps lowered, lateral stability will:
O be reduced because the centre of lift is closer to the wing root.
O be increased because of increased lift.
O not be affected.
O be decreased because of increased lift.
334 What is a Horn balance?
O A projection of the outer edge of the control surface forward of the hinge line.
O A rod projecting upward from the main control surface to which the control cables are attached.
O A rod projecting forward from the control surface with a weight attached to the end.
335 The movement of the flying control surfaces is limited by:
O mechanical stops.
O aerodynamic forces.
O is not limited.