When do L cells in the distal ileum release enteroglucan?
When do the M cells in the duodenum release motilin?
When is neurotensin released and from what cells?
How is glucose taken up by facilitated diffusion?
How is glucose take up into the enterocytes via secondary active transport?
What is creatorrhea and how is it caused?
How are amino acids absorbed into the enterocytes?
How do small peptides (di and tri) enter the enterocytes?
What happens in cystic fibrosis?
What happens in acute pancreatitis?
Where is CCK released and why?
Pancreatic secretion is also controlled via the enteric nervous system. The release of which neurotransmitters causes an increase in PKA ?
What cellular mechanism underlies secretion from the acinar cells?
What is the function of pancreatic secretions?
What are the two major components of pancreatic secretion?
Which of the following is NOT a proteolytic precursor?
trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, ribonuclease and procarboxypeptidase
How CCK, Ach increase Ca²⁺concentration?
What substance stimulates secretion of isosmotic HCO₃¯ from the duct cells?
During which phase of GI control does pancreatic secretion occur most prominently?
Where is secretin released from and why?
What cells produce gastrin?
Where is gastric juice secreted from and what is it composed of?
What cells secrete pepsinogen?
What do the parietal cells secrete?
What two receptors are activated to switch off acid secretion by parietal cells?
What is intrinsic factor needed for?
Why is the intestinal phase of the GI tract mainly inhibitory for gastric secretion?
What cell secretes histamine?
What nerves control the upper esophageal sphincter?
What nerve innervates the lower esophageal sphincter?
How are parietal cells regulated to prevent constant acid secretion and therefore prevent peptic ulcers?
Is the pyloric sphincter normally relaxed or contracted?
What are the three activities of the pyloric antrum of the stomach?
What does the term 'alkaline tide' mean?
What are the four basic types of movement in the small intestine?
How can helicobacter pylori contribute to production of peptic ulcers?
Name the four receptors identified on the parietal cell membrane.
Name two drugs which can be used to control gastric secretions
What cells produce saliva?
Salivary secretion is under what nervous control?
How does atropine work in controlling gastric secretions?
What receptor does gastrin act on?
What is produced by D cells?
What does fat do to the rate of acid secretion?
What effect will disruption to the parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation to the gut have on the enteric nervous system?
What are hormone secreting cells in the mucosa called?
Name the three hormones released into the circulation from the duodenum?
Roughly how many regulatory peptides are used by the GI tract, and how many of these act as endocrine hormones?
What is the cephalic phase of GI control?
How is water absorbed in the small intestine and the colon?
How much fluid do we absorb per day?
What is the pH of the stomach?
Where is the strongest alkaline secretion in the body?
How much fluid does the average person excrete per day?
Where does the majority of absorption of Calcium and iron occur?
What type of molecule act as neurotransmitters in the enteric nervous system?
How is the GI tract controlled intrinsically?
How is the GI tract controlled extriniscally?
What are the two plexus's of the enteric nervous system?
What effect does the parasympathetic nervous system have on the GI tract?
What effect does the sympathetic nervous system have on the GI tract?
Does the enteric nervous system involve the CNS?
What do mechanoreceptors respond to?
What do chemoreceptors respond to?
What are the four sympathetic plexuses of the GI tract?