A circular metal disc is heated.
Which quantity decreases?
The same quantity of thermal (heat) energy is given to two objects X and Y. The temperature rise of object X is less than the temperature rise of object Y.
What accounts for this difference?
X has a larger thermal capacity than Y.
X is a better thermal conductor than Y.
Y has a larger thermal capacity than X.
Y is a better thermal conductor than X.
A swimmer feels cold after leaving warm water on a warm, windy day.
Why does she feel cold even though the air is warm?
The less energetic water molecules on her skin escape quickly.
The more energetic water molecules on her skin do not escape quickly.
The water on her skin does not evaporate quickly enough to keep her warm.
The water on her skin evaporates quickly and cools her skin.
A substance loses thermal energy (heat) to the surroundings at a steady rate.
The graph shows how the temperature of the substance changes with time.
What could the portion PQ of the graph represent?
A gas condensing
B gas cooling
C liquid cooling
D liquid solidifying
A student wishes to check the upper and the lower fixed points on a Celsius scale thermometer.
She has four beakers P, Q, R and S.
Beaker P contains a mixture of ice and salt.
Beaker Q contains a mixture of ice and water.
Beaker R contains boiling salt solution.
Beaker S contains boiling water.
Which two beakers should she use to check the fixed points?
A P and R
B P and S
C Q and R
D Q and S
The same quantity of thermal energy is supplied to two solid objects X and Y. The temperature increase of object X is greater than the temperature increase of object Y.
Which statement explains this?
A X has a lower melting point than Y.
B X has a lower density than Y.
C X has a lower thermal capacity than Y.
D X is a better thermal conductor than Y.
What is meant by the fixed points of the scale of a liquid-in-glass thermometer?
A the distance between one scale division and the next
B the highest and lowest temperatures that the thermometer can record
C the maximum and minimum depth to which the thermometer should be submerged in a liquid
D the two agreed temperatures used for marking the temperature scale.
A liquid at room temperature fills a flask and a glass tube to level X.
The flask is now placed in ice, and the liquid level in the tube falls to level Y.
Why does the level fall?
A The flask contracts.
B The flask expands.
C The liquid contracts.
D The liquid expands.
The melting points of ethanol and mercury are shown.
Which of these two liquids is/ are suitable to use in a liquid-in-glass thermometer to measure temperatures of –50°C and –120°C?
A ethanol only
B ethanol and mercury
C mercury only
D neither ethanol nor mercury
Which quantity gives the thermal capacity of a beaker?
A the thermal energy required to change the state of the beaker at constant temperature
B the thermal energy required to raise the temperature of the beaker by 1°C
C the total mass of hot liquid that the beaker can hold
D the total volume of hot liquid that the beaker can hold
A jug of water is at room temperature.
Several ice cubes at a temperature of 0°C are dropped into the water and they begin to melt immediately.
What happens to the temperature of the water and what happens to the temperature of the ice cubes while they are melting?
An engineer wants to fix a steel washer on to a steel rod. The rod is just too big to fit into the hole of the washer.
How can the engineer fit the washer on to the rod?
A Cool the washer and then place it over the rod.
B Cool the washer and rod to the same temperature and then push them together.
C Heat the rod and then place it in the hole in the washer.
D Heat the washer and then place it over the rod.
The diagram shows electricity cables being put up on a warm day. The cables are left loose between the poles, as shown in the diagram.
Why are the cables left loose?
A They will contract on cold days.
B They will contract on very warm days
C They will expand on cold days.
D They will expand on very warm days.
The diagram shows some ice being used to lower the temperature of some warm water.
What is the main process by which the water at the bottom of the glass becomes cool?
The pressure of a fixed mass of gas in a cylinder is measured. The temperature of the gas in the cylinder is then slowly increased. The volume of the cylinder does not change.
Which graph shows the pressure of the gas during this process?
Two metal blocks X and Y are at room temperature. Each block is heated so that its temperature
rises by 10°C.
The blocks are now allowed to cool back to room temperature.
Block Y has a greater thermal capacity than block X.
Which block needs more thermal (heat) energy to heat it up by 10°C and which block loses more
thermal (heat) energy as it cools back to room temperature?
A long thin bar of copper is heated evenly along its length.
What happens to the bar?
A It becomes less heavy.
B It becomes longer.
C It becomes shorter.
D It bends at the ends.
A solid is heated from room temperature. The graph shows how its temperature changes with time as it is heated constantly.
Between which labelled points on the graph is the substance partly solid and partly liquid?
A between P and Q
B between Q and R
C between R and S
D between S and T
Cold water evaporates as molecules leave it.
Which molecules leave the water and from which part of the water do they leave?
Which row is correct?
What makes the metal mercury a suitable liquid for use in a thermometer?
A It expands uniformly when heated.
B It is a poor conductor of heat.
C It is more dense than glass.
D It reacts slowly to changes in a temperature.
What is the temperature difference between the fixed points on the °C temperature scale?
A 10 °C
B 100 °C
C 110 °C
D 120 °C
Which method of thermal transfer occurs when the density of some of a liquid decreases and the
liquid moves upwards?
The diagram shows a tent made from a new material.
What type of material should the tent be made of to reflect the radiant energy from the Sun?
A material texture = dull; material surface colour = black
B material texture = dull; material surface colour = white
C material texture = shiny; material surface colour = black
D material texture = shiny; material surface colour = white
A night storage heater contains a large block of material that is heated electrically during the
night. During the day the block cools down, releasing thermal energy into the room.
Which thermal capacity and which night-time temperature increase will cause the most energy to be stored by the block?
A thermal capacity of block = large; night-time temperature increase = large
B thermal capacity of block = large; night-time temperature increase = small
C thermal capacity of block = small; night-time temperature increase = large
D thermal capacity of block = small; night-time temperature increase = small