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What are the function(s) of the vertebral column?
Encloses and protects the spinal cord
Acts as as support for the trunk
Supports the skull
Provides attachment for the deep muscles of the back and ribs laterally
What holds the vertebral column together?
How many vertebrae make up the sacrum?
The coccyx is made up of 3 vertebrae.
The 24 vertebral segments in the upper three regions are termed the true
false( true, false ) or movable
fixed( movable, fixed ) vertebrae. The pelvic segments in the lower regions are called false
true( false, true ) or fixed
movable( fixed, movable ) vertebrae.
The vertebral column is made up of three curves.
The cervical and lumbar curves, which are convex
concave( convex, concave ) anteriorly, are called lordotic
kyphotic( lordotic, kyphotic ) curves. The thoracic and pelvic curves are concave
convex( concave, convex ) anteriorly and are called kyphotic
lordotic( kyphotic, lordotic ) curves
lumbar( thoracic, cervical, lumbar ) and pelvic
lumbar( pelvic, sacral, lumbar ) curves are called primary curves because they are present at birth. The cervical
thoracic( cervical, pelvic, thoracic ) and lumbar
thoracic( lumbar, sacral, thoracic ) curves are called secondary or compensatory curves because they develop after birth.
lumbar( cervical, thoracic, lumbar ) curve, which is the least pronounced of the curves, develops when an infant begins to hold the head up at about 3
4( 3, 2, 1, 4 ) or 4
2( 4, 5, 3, 2 ) months of age and begins to sit alone at about 8
9( 8, 6, 7, 9 ) or 9
11( 9, 8, 10, 11 ) months of age. The lumbar
thoracic( lumbar, cervical, thoracic ) curve develops when the child begins to walk at about 1
1.5( 1, 0.5, 2, 1.5 ) to 1.5
3( 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 ) years of age.
The lumbar and pelvic curves are more pronounced in females, who have a more acute angle at the lumbosacral junction.
Any abnormal increase in the anterior concavity (or posterior convexity) of the thoracic curve is termed kyphosis
lordosis( kyphosis, lordosis ). Any abnormal increase in the anterior convexity (or posterior concavity) of the lumbar or cervical curve is termed lordosis
kyphosis( lordosis, kyphosis ).
The superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebra bodies are flattened and are covered by a thin layer of articular cartilage.
In the articulated spine, the vertebral bodies are separated by intervertebral disks, forming the cartilaginous intervertebral joints. These disks account for approximately one fourth of the length of the vertebral column. Each disk has a central mass of soft, pulpy, semigelatinous material called the nucleus pulposus
anulus fibrosus( nucleus pulposus, anulus fibrosus ), which is surrounded by an outer fibrocartilaginous disk called the anulus fibrosus
nucleus pulposus( anulus fibrosus, nucleus pulposus ).
It is common for the pulpy nucleus to rupture or protrude into the vertebral canal, impinging on a spinal nerve. This condition is called herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) or, more commonly, .
The vertebral arch is formed by two pedicles and two laminae that support four articular processes, two transverse processes, and one spinous process.
A congenital defect of the vertebral column in which the laminae fail to unite posteriorly at the midline is called .
What cervical vertebra is a ringlike structure with no body and a very short spinous process?
Which cervical vertebra is termed the vertebra prominens?
The bodies of the typical (third through ninth
third through eleventh
second through ninth
fourth through twelfth( third through ninth, third through eleventh, second through ninth, fourth through twelfth )) thoracic vertebrae are approximately triangular in form.
Although the size and degree of curvature of the sacrum vary considerably in different patients, the bone is normally longer, narrower, more evenly curved, and more vertical in position in males
females( males, females ) than in females
males( females, males ).
The male sacrum is more acutely curved.
Which of the following are cartilaginous joints?
The atlantoaxial joint is both a gliding and pivot type of joint.
The zygapophyseal joint is the only slightly movable joint.
: Comminuted fracture of the ring of C1.
: Forward displacement of a vertebra over a lower vertebra.
: Failure of the posterior encasement of the spinal cord to close.
: Fracture of the anterior arch of C2 owing to hyperextension.
: Breaking down of the vertebra.
: Incomplete or partial dislocation.
: Lateral deviation of the spine with possible vertebral rotation.
: Avulsion fracture of the spinous process in the lower cervical and upper thoracic region.
: Kyphosis with onset in adolescence.