What is the first assumption of the psychodynamic approach?
Behaviour is shaped by genes
Behaviour is shaped by the unconscious mind
Behaviour is learnt through reinforcement
What is behaviour shaped by in the second assumption of the psychodynamic approach?
Positive and negative reinforcement
levels of brain chemicals
childhood experiences and early relationships
What are the three stages of Freud's personality theory?
ANAL, PHALLIC, LATENT
SUPEREGO, EGO, ID
OEDIPUS, ELECTRA, ORAL
What would the later behaviour of a child fixated in the anal stage be like?
Obsessively tidy in later life
Sexually obsessed personality
lack of morals
What does the SUPEREGO shape?
The seeking of pleasure
morals and personality
What may happen if defence mechanisms get out of hand, according to Freud's theory of personality?
Aggressive personality may develop
More likely to become ill
Person becomes extremely happy
Personality is shaped by...
how much positive reinforcement a child recieves
how well the brain can process inputs and outputs
how effectively the ego balances the conflicting demands of the id and superego
a smooth passage through the stages will lead to...
a child fixated in the phallic stage
a stable and balanced personality
a impulsive behaviour
What is abnormal behaviour due to?
overuse of repression, by the ego, as a defence mechanism
underuse of repression, causing unrealistic wishes and fears
unbalance of brain chemicals
What does dream analysis aim to do?
make abnormal behaviour normal by making wishes and dreams unconscious
make abnormal behaviour normal by unlearning faulty learning, such as phobia, and replacing it with appropriate learning
make abnormal behaviour normal by making repressed wishes and fears conscious so they can be resolved
what are the two layers of a patient's dream the therapist must draw out?
manifest and oedipus
oedipus and latent
manifest and latent
what does 'dream-work' consist of?
transforming forbidden wishes into a non-threatening form
the patient sleeping whilst the therapist watches and analyses their sleeping pattern
the client creating a list of all their past experiences and fears
In dream analysis what must the therapist not do?
force an interpretation on a client
create negative feelings within the patients dreams
cause an unnatural sleeping pattern for the client
what is catharsis?
unconscious wishes and fears
negative attitudes towards past experiences
what is the success rate of psychoanalysis according to Bergin?