Kaaj Pala
Quiz by , created more than 1 year ago

Cell injury and reversible effects on cells.

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Kaaj Pala
Created by Kaaj Pala almost 4 years ago
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  • 203: LECT 6

    Question 1 of 19

    1

    Which features of ionising radiation is incorrect?

    Select one of the following:

    • X/gamma rays have energy to break bonds.

    • Damage to DNA bases.

    • Water is the main target for ionising radiation.

    • Water breaks into H and OH radical with OH and ionising radiation go on to break DNA strands.

    Explanation

    Question 2 of 19

    1

    What are all the effects of death of endothelial cells

    Select one or more of the following:

    • Ulceration

    • Scarring

    • Atrophy (shrinkage) of surrounding tissue

    • Inflammation and chronic pain

    Explanation

    Question 3 of 19

    1

    Which is not a feature of UV radiation to damage of DNA?

    Select one of the following:

    • Damage to DNA bases where adjacent C-T become linked.

    • The DNA strand will break.

    • Misrepair generates C to T point mutations leading to cancer development

    • More damage leads to death of keratinocytes (peeling sunburn)

    Explanation

    Question 4 of 19

    1

    The chemical factor to damage to DNA -Alkylation is:

    Select one or more of the following:

    • Fungal product aflatoxin B1 accumulates in poorly stored food (in underdeveloped countries).

    • Metabolites react covalently (alkylate) with proteins to cause liver injury ; acutely at high doses.

    • Metabolites alkylate DNA hence G to T mutations = liver cancer= chronic and low doses.

    • Folic acid further damages the DNA.

    • The crystals puncture the membranes.

    Explanation

    Question 5 of 19

    1

    Which is a feature of biological dietary deficiency - DNA?

    Select one of the following:

    • Autoimmune gastritis lack intrinsic factor prevents B12 absorption.

    • Proteins cause liver injury acutely

    • Inflammasomes generate severe inflammation.

    • Hydrogen peroxide will be detoxifed to catalase to oxygen and water.

    Explanation

    Question 6 of 19

    1

    Which is not a feature of chemical damage to lipids?

    Select one of the following:

    • Cells take up crystals into lysosomes.

    • Crystals puncture lysosome membrane.

    • Damaged mitochondria cannot reduce oxygen completely.

    • Inflammasomes activated.

    Explanation

    Question 7 of 19

    1

    ROS and RNS are not free radicals?

    Select one of the following:

    • True
    • False

    Explanation

    Question 8 of 19

    1

    Which is not an oxidative reaction in the chemical factor of damage to lipids?

    Select one of the following:

    • Superoxide (O2-) - detoxed by superoxide dismutase

    • Hydrogen peroxide - detoxed by catalase

    • Oxygen therapy - exposure to premature babies

    • Hydroxyl radical - OH.

    Explanation

    Question 9 of 19

    1

    Which of these does not contribute to injury of cell via ROS?

    Select one of the following:

    • Oxygen therapy

    • Inflammation

    • Megablastic anaemia

    • Damaged mitochondria

    • UV radiation

    • Radiotherapy

    Explanation

    Question 10 of 19

    1

    How does acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis occur?
    Biological lipase factor

    Select one of the following:

    • Proteolytic cleavage of ECM proteins

    • The p53 transcription factor

    • Damage to exocrine cells which synthesise digestive enzymes or block ducts that these enzymes travel to duodenum by

    • Prolonged heat exposure

    Explanation

    Question 11 of 19

    1

    Which is not a consequence of heat exposure in proteins?

    Select one of the following:

    • High fever

    • Heat stroke

    • Malignant hyperthermia

    • Acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis

    Explanation

    Question 12 of 19

    1

    Is the Maillard reaction the enzymatic addition of sugars to proteins?

    Select one of the following:

    • True
    • False

    Explanation

    Question 13 of 19

    1

    Which of the following is not a result of the reaction occurring between reducing sugars and amino groups?

    Select one of the following:

    • Reversible early stage Schiff bases

    • Irreversible rearrangements to Amadori products.

    • Further rearrangements to advanced glycation end products (AGE).

    • Nrf transcription factors.

    Explanation

    Question 14 of 19

    1

    How do AGE injure cells?

    Select one or more of the following:

    • Inhibit protein function

    • Cross linking and precipitating proteins (blocking axon transport in neurons)

    • Generating ROS

    • Binding to receptors of AGE (RAGE) on vascular and inflammatory cells that reduce blood flow and cause inflammation.

    • The enzymatic addition of sugars to proteins.

    Explanation

    Question 15 of 19

    1

    Does AGE accumulate during ageing, diabetes, and chronic inflammation?

    Select one of the following:

    • True
    • False

    Explanation

    Question 16 of 19

    1

    When and where does proteolytic cleavage occur during inflammation when proteins are damaged?
    Biological factor

    Select one of the following:

    • Collagen in arthritis

    • Elastin in emphysema

    • Laminin during cancer invasion

    • Blood vessel damage behind eye during retinopathy

    Explanation

    Question 17 of 19

    1

    Which factor does acute intracellular oedema (hydropic change) not affect the cells regulation of ion concentration in cytoplasm?

    Select one of the following:

    • Plasma membranes permeable to Na+ hence K+ leaks out (Na+ in) hence cell swells.

    • ATP synthesis disrupted, Na+/K+ ATPase inhibited

    • Na+ pump damaged

    • Cell shrinks due to excess water loss

    Explanation

    Question 18 of 19

    1

    Does abnormalities in capacity of cells to recycle components result in the non-accumulation of products such as fat and glycogen?

    Select one of the following:

    • True
    • False

    Explanation

    Question 19 of 19

    1

    When there are fatty changes in liver cell what does not happen when the triglycerides accumulate?

    Select one of the following:

    • In normal liver cells they cannot metabolise increased fatty acids conc. coming from adipose tissue (diabetes)

    • In abnormal liver cells they have a decreased ability to oxidise fatty acids (alcohol damage)

    • In abnormal liver cells have decreased ability to export triglycerides compounded with lipid-acceptor proteins i.e. VLDL leading to malnutrition, kwashiorkor - not enough proteins and more fat.

    • In normal liver cells they cannot transport more of the fat from the tissue to urine and therefore leading to blockage.

    Explanation