The Cell (Biology #1)

Rosalyn Phung
Flashcards by Rosalyn Phung, updated more than 1 year ago


- Chapter 1 - MCAT (Kaplan package)
Tags No tags specified

Resource summary

Question Answer
types of epithelial cells Categorized based on 1. # of layers: simple, stratified, pseudostratified 2. shape: cuboidal, columnar, squamous
examples of connective tissue bone, cartilage, bond, tendons, ligaments, adipose tissue, blood
role of epithelial tissue line body/cavities; sometimes involves in absorption, secretion, sensation; contributes to parenchyma (function of organ)
role of connective tissue support the body; provides framework for epithelial cells; contributes to stroma (structure of organ)
polarized cells e.g. epithelial cells; one side face lumen (hollow side of organ/outside world) and other size interacts with blood vessels/structural cells
c provide structure/shape to cells and mode of transport of materials throughout cells
microfilaments (MF) made of actin; involved in movement (actin-myosin for muscle contraction) as well as production of cleavage furrow in cytokinesis
microtubules (MT) hollow polymers of tubular proteins; radiate throughout cells, providing path for kinesin and dynein (motor proteins); involved in migration of mitotic spindle; e.g. flagella, cilia
intermediate filament (IF) filamentous proteins; type of protein is specific to cell/tissue; involved in cell-cell adhesion, maintaining cytoskeleton and anchoring organelles; e.g. keratin, destine
types of tissue 1. epithelial 2. connective 3. nervous 4. muscle
lysosome contains hydrolytic enzymes, which are released during autolysis resulting in apoptosis
peroxisome contains hydrogen peroxide; involved in breakdown of fatty acid chains via beta-oxidation, formation of phospholipids and contain enzymes for pentose phosphate path
golgi apparatus pancake structure; material transported from ER - golgi via vesicles; involved in modifying, sorting and repackaging of material
modifications in golgi addition of carbohydrate, phosphate, sulphate OR singling sequence
smooth ER no ribosomes; where lipid synthesis takes place, detoxication of certain drugs/poisons and transport of proteins from RER - golgi
rough ER contains ribosomes; where production of proteins (via translation) takes place and secreted into the lumen of golgi
mitochondria where ATP is made (ATP synthase made through process of oxidative phosphorylation); semi-autonomous, evolved from symbiotic relationship of prokaryotes, and can kickstart apoptosis
different layers of mitochondria + processes outermembrane - release of ATP? intermembrane space - H+ pumped into to create proton-motive force inner membrane - H+ pumped through to create proton-motive force matrix - where H+ pumped from
nucleus separate process of transcription and translation; double membrane contain nuclear pores; contain nucleolus that makes rRNA
DNA organized around histones which are then organized into linear structures, known as chromosomes
prokaryote single-celled, but may live in colonies; no membrane-bound organelles and DNA exist as circular structure in nucleoid region; e.g. all bacteria; can acquire external DNA
prokaryotic domains 1. archae 2. bacteria
archae contain genes and pathways more similar to eukaryotes than bacteria; extremophiles, often using alternative E sources (chemosynthetic); same origin as eukaryotes; single circular DNA, divide via binary fission or budding, and same structure to bacteria; often resistant to antibiotics
bacteria contain cell membrane and cytoplasm; some have flagella or fimbrae (like cilia); hard to target since similar structures to eukaryotes, but some differences
bacteria's relationship with the human body some mutualistic symbiotes or pathogens; can like inter- or intra-cellularly
classification of bacteria by shape 1. cocci (sphere) 2. bacilli (rod) 3. spirilli (spiral)
aerobes need O2 for metabolism
anaerobes not need O2 since use other type of cellular respiration known as fermentation; types 1. obligate, 2. facultative OR 3. aerotolerant
prokaryotic cell structure cell wall + cell membrane (envelope), flagella (1<) , single + circular DNA, plasmids (external DNA; not required, but may give antibiotic resistance), no mitochondria (ETC on cell membrane), smaller ribosomes
cell wall provide structure + regulate solute movement between inside and outside (concentration gradient)
types of cell wall in bacteria 1. gram positive 2. gram negative
gram positive cell wall contains thick layer of peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid; protect from host's immune system
gram negative cells walls are thin; contain peptidoglycan but less, and outer membrane with phospholipids and lipopolysaccharides (trigger stronger immune response in humans than lipoteichoic acid)
flagella may away from toxins/immune cells via chemotaxis; contain flagellin and structure attached to basal body (anchor to cytoplasmic membrane and motor; connected to flagella by hook); similar in gram + and - (slightly different)
binary fission asexual reproduction in prokaryotes; steps 1. DNA attach to cell wall and replicates + cell grows 2. PM and CW grow along midline 3. 2 daughter cells made
genetic recombination ...
Show full summary Hide full summary


Business Studies Unit 2
Maths Quiz
Andrea Leyden
Themes in Pride and Prejudice
Statistics Key Words
Biological molecules
C1:Making Crude Oil Useful (Science-GCSE)
Temi Onas
The Tempest Key Themes
Joe Brown
Repaso de Revalida Enfermeria 2015
Francisco Rivera
Longevidad y Envejecimiento Fisiológico
Isaac Alexander
“The knower’s perspective is essential in the pursuit of knowledge.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?
Lucia Rocha Mejia
Atomic numbers and mass numbers quiz
Sarah Egan
Introduction to the Atom
Derek Cumberbatch
3.1 Keywords - Marketing
Biology - B1 - AQA - GCSE - Keeping Healthy and Defending Against Infection
Josh Anderson
The Skeleton and Muscles
james liew
Laura Louise
What You Can Do Using GoConqr
Micheal Heffernan
1PR101 1.test - 1. část
Nikola Truong
Účto Fífa 1/6
Bára Drahošová