social capital

Paul Roberts
Flashcards by Paul Roberts, updated more than 1 year ago
Paul Roberts
Created by Paul Roberts almost 7 years ago
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social capital and various aspects

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Communitarianism The central premise within communitarian conceptions of social order is that communities and societies should limit selfish individualism Conservative moral communitarianism rejects the individualistic rationalism of the Enlightenment and the privileging of individual rights over collective responsibilities
concerned with the deterioration of private and public morality , the decline of the family , high crime rates , and the swelling of corruption in government The Third Way - old style social democracy and neoliberalism
Classical social democracy 1:Collectivisim, 2:Confined role for markets:the mixed or social economy 3:Full employment, 4:Strong egalitarianism 5:Comprehensive welfare state, ”from cradle to grave” 6: Low ecological consciousness 7:Pervasive state involvement 8:State dominates over civil society
Neoliberalism/Neoconservatism 1:Minimal government 2:Autonomous civil society 3:Market fundamentalism 4: Moral authoritarianism plus strong economic individualism 5:Acceptance of inequality 6:Traditional nationalism 7:Welfare state as safety net 8:Low ecological consciousness
Civic Engagement Putnam’s central thesis is that a well functioning regional economy together with a high level of political integration are the result of that region’s capacity to successfully amass social capital Social capital here has three components: • Moral obligations and norms. • Social values (particularly trust) • Social networks (especially the membership of voluntary associations).
the productive activity of social capital is manifest in its capacity to “facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit Social Capital for Wellbeing • Durkheim – established a relationship between social cohesion and health. • People who are less socially isolated and more involved in social and civic activities are likely to have better health
Ireland a Vision for Change (2006) accepts that factors associated with inadequate social capital are found to have an independent negative effect on mental health-such factors include: • Lack of neighbourhood trust •A high level of problems in the local area • A poor level of local services • Infrequent contact with friends • Lack of social supports.
Putnam’s Link -Social Capital and Health Social networks can help to secure tangible material assistance and thereby reduce stress Social networks can reinforce health norms Social networks provide a platform for active engagement in lobbying campaigns for medical services Social networks provide positive opportunities for social interaction which may stimulate the body’s immune system
Durkheim Mechanical Solidarity – social cohesion built on resemblance and similarity Organic Solidarity –social cohesion built on interdependance •Bourdieu •Reproduction of inequality thru culture Cultural capital – embodied state, objectified state, institutionalized state Social capital –ties and connections which assist individuals
Coleman Social capital exists in the structure of relations between individuals and is thus largely intangible Coleman –Four Important Forms of Social Capital 1: Obligations and expections ( eg. Doing favours for and receiving favours 2: Informational potential Sharing useful information that may inform some future action)
3: Norms and effective sanctions (eg. The establishment of community values and shared standards of behaviour) 4: Authority relations (eg.skilful leadership that informs others’ actions •Components of Social Capital 1:Networks 2:Norms , Values ,Expectancies,Sanctions 3: trust
• Bridging •Formed from the connections between people who have less in common , but may have an overlapping interest for example , between , neighbours,colleagues ,or between different groups within a community. Good for “getting ahead
• Linking •Derived from the links between people or organisations beyond peer boundaries ,cutting across status and similarity and enabling people to exert influence and reach resources outside their normal circles. • Bonding – based on enduring ,multi faceted relationships between similar people with strong mutual commitments such as among friends ,family and other close-knit groups. Good for “getting by”.
• Too much bonding and too little bridging can stifle and restrict personal initiative and innovation Too much bridging and too little bonding can leave individuals personally vulnerable , insufficient linking social capital can leave specific social groups isolated from the centres of power and influence necessary for realisation of their rights and interests
Dark side of social capital -Inner city gangs represent forms of social capital where the benefits of solidarity are harmful to bystanders -hate groups or inbred bureaucracies “ benefit from access to reserves of social capital just as much as anyone. Everyone can use their connections as a way of advancing their interests , but some people’s connections are more valuable than others.
Civil society as associational life Civil society is where people come together voluntarily for the benefit of themselves, others, for actions that lie beyond either the government or for-private-profit business formal organisations such as voluntary and community organisations, faith-based organisations, trade unions includes informal groups, from the very local to global social movements.
At its best, civil society activity enhances people’s lives, drawing on a range of human motivations which include compassion, altruism and our instincts for reciprocity They can be bigoted and selfish. They can preach hatred and violence as well as love and generosity
Civil society as a ‘good’ society civil society is sometimes used as a shorthand for the type of society we want to live in Commission’s view of a ‘good’ society include a commitment to social justice mutuality a belief in the interdependence of lives behave towards others as you would have them behave towards you
Civil society as the arenas for public deliberation the places where people and organisations discuss common interests, develop solutions to society’s most pressing problems and try to reconcile differences peacefully physical – a community centre or meetings and events hosted by civil society groups or public bodies virtual – on the web
The activity of civil society is motivated by hopes for society as a whole, as well as by a multitude of everyday concerns; and it achieves its momentum in part by creating spaces in which people are free to argue, imagine and decide. Civil society is naturally diverse and argumentative of support from across the political spectrum for a profound change of direction from excessive consumerism and waste towards a greater concern for care, compassion and the quality
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