AP Psychology Chpt. 2

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Chpt. 1 Introducing Psychology Vocabulary

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physiological of or pertaining to physiology
cognitive of or pertaining to the mental processes of perception, memory, judgment, and reasoning, as contrasted with emotional and volitional processes.
psychology the science of the mind or of mental states and processes.
4 goals of psychology are to: *describe * explain *predict *control the behavior and mental processes of others.
hypothesis a proposition, or set of propositions, set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide investigation (working hypothesis) or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts.
basic(pure) science A basic knowledge for the discovery of unknown laws based on well controlled experiments and deductions from demonstrated facts or truths.
applied science the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems; "he had trouble deciding which branch of engineering to study"
scientific method a method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
Wilhelm Wundt Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt was a German physician, physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the founding figures of modern psychology
dualism Dualism is the presumption proposed by Descartes that the human mind and body are two distinct entities that interact with each other to make a person. Descartes reasoned that the mind and the body communicate with each other through a small structure at the base of the brain called the pineal gland.
tabula rasa the mind in its hypothetical primary blank or empty state before receiving outside impressions
structuralist find detail and structure of our conscious thoughts and minds
introspection can be used to describe both an informal reflection process and a more formalized experimental approach.
William James first U.S. psych professor. Wrote the first psychology textbook.
functionalist studies how behavior connect to survival and reproduction. (Darwinism and Evolution)
Sir Francis Galton He was the first to note the importance of individual differences, he created the first tests of mental ability, was the first to use questionnaires, and devised the first tests to measure the association between ideas in a subject's mind.
nature vs. nurture the debate about the extent to which our behavior is inborn or learned through experiences. Nature: "Man is made, not born." Nurture: "Man is born, not made."
Gestalt psychology a school of thought that looks at the human mind and behavior as a whole. Originating in the work of Max Wertheimer, Gestalt psychology formed partially as a response to the structuralism of Wilhelm Wundt.
Sigmund Freud developed hypnosis. One of the most notable psychologist of his time. Became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis
free association A simple technique of psychodynamic therapy is free association in which a patient talks of whatever comes into their mind.
Oedipus Complex is a term used by Sigmund Freud in his theory of psychosexual stages of development to describe a boy's (between the ages of 3 and 5) feelings of desire for his mother and jealously and anger towards his father. Essentially, a boy feels like he is in competition with his father for possession of his mother. He views his father as a rival for her attentions and affections.
Mary Whiton Calkins is best known for two things: becoming the first woman president of the American Psychological Association and being denied her doctorate from Harvard.
Ivan Pavlov Physiologist Ivan Pavlov's research on salivation and digestion led to the discovering of classical conditioning. The concept of classical conditioning is studied by every entry-level psychology student, so it may be surprising to learn that the man who first noted this phenomenon was not a psychologist at all.
behaviorist studies behavior that can only be seen; such as actions preformed by the subject.
John B. Watson is often referred to as the "father of behaviorism" and has long been a somewhat controversial figure in psychology. The term behaviorism refers to the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson based on the belief that behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed.
humanists focuses more on human choice, free will. People have inner resources for personal development and growth.
psychiatry In its ongoing attempts to define, understand, and categorize disorders, and determine the best treatments, the medical specialty of psychiatry is always up against the protean complexity of the human brain.
clinical psychologists assess, diagnose, and treat mental disorders.
counseling psychologist is a type of applied psychology that can be used to help people gain control of their feelings.
Industrial/Organizational psychologists (I/O psychologists) is the branch of psychology that applies psychological theories and principles to organizations.
Kenneth B. Clark is best known for his studies on race relations, most of which were conducted with his wife, psychologist Mamie Phipps Clark.
Phrenology: science of skull bumps phrenologists believed that different parts of the brain were responsible for different emotional and intellectual functions. Furthermore, they felt that these functions could be ascertained by measuring the bumps and indentations in your skull. That is, the shape of your skull revealed your character and talents.
empiricism the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should rely on observation and experimentation
experimental psychology the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method
cognitive neroscience the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language.)
psychology the science of behavior and mental processes
natural selection the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
level of analysis the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
biopsychosocial approach an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
biological psychology a branch of psychology that studies the link between biological (including including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes
evolutionary psychology the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection
psychodynamic psychology a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders
behavioral psychology the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning
cognitive psychology the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
social-cultural psychology the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
psychometrics the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
basic research pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
developmental psychology the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
educational psychology the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
personality psychology the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
social psychology the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
applied research scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
human factors psychology the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments
counseling psychology a branch of psychology that assists peole with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
clinical psychology a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
B. F. Skinner behaviorist psychologists; studied rats and pigeons; big idea reinforcements
G. Stanley Hall opened the first psychology lab in the US
Abraham Maslow humanistic psychologist; emphasized potential for self-growth; BIG IDEA- self-acutualization
John Locke English philosopher believed we are born a "blank slate" (tabula rasa); "a white sheet of paper that experience write upon"
phrenology popular in the 1800's "the science of skull bumps"; discovered by Franz Joseph Gall
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