Mexico XIX Century

Paola Vizcaino
Flashcards by Paola Vizcaino, updated more than 1 year ago
Paola Vizcaino
Created by Paola Vizcaino over 6 years ago
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Main events and processes during the XIX century in Mexico

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Question Answer
Why is the XIX century in Mexico known as the "Century of Anarchy"? Civil wars Changes of Constitutions Military and popular uprisings Foreign interventions Conservatives vs. Liberals Political, economic and social instability
Mention some of the problems that independent Mexico faced in the creation of a Nation-State Mexico had to define its type of government (Monarchy, Federal or Centralist Republic) Confrontation of ideas, opinions (Conservatives vs Liberals) Social inequality
Describe Mexican society in the XIX century Social classes: Wealthy landowners Small political elite (liberals & conservatives) Majority of poor population Indigenous people (didn't speak Spanish) Peasants and workers had little rights
How was the Mexican territory in the XIX century? The Mexican territory in the XIX century was not well integrated All the political decisions were made in Mexico City (centralization) The northern territories were isolated This made Mexico vulnerable to internal and external conflicts (foreign invasions)
Main economic problems of Independent Mexico - Little production (Indpendence war) - No capacity to collect taxes - Debt with UK, France and Spain (loans, acquisition of weapons, ships, investment in mining) - Mexico exported raw materials and imported manufactured goods
What role did Agustín de Iturbide play in the Mexican Independence? Agustín de Iturbide switched bands from the Royal to the Independence army He negotiated the terms of the Mexican Independence Signed the Iguala Plan & Córdoba Treaties He supported an European-style Monarchy
First Empire Agustín de Iturbide 1822-1823 After the formation of the Provisional Junta, the army supported Iturbide to become an Emperor in 1822 Iturbide was named "Agustin I" His empire was a bad simulation of the Spanish Monarchy The liberal Congress constantly attacked Iturbide
Who signed the Casa Mata Plan in 1823 and what was it for? Antonio López de Santa Ana Vicente Guerrero Nicolás Bravo J.A. Chávarri and others - Its purpose was to overthrow Iturbide - It wanted to form a new Congress - Supported regional autonomy
The Triumvirate or Three-People Government in 1823 After the fall of Iturbide, the Congress named a new executive government led by three men: Pedro Celestino Negrete Vicente Guerrero Nicolás Bravo
Constitution of 1824 Promulgated October 4th, 1824 Inspired by Cádiz & U.S. Constitution - Established a Federal Republic - Catholic religion - Education & freedom of press - Did not alter the rights of the Church and the military
The first Federal Republic in Mexico From 1824 - 1835 First Mexican experience with Republic Two Triumvirates & Nine Presidents Guadalupe Victoria was the First President Creation of the Mexican Hacienda More loans from foreign countries Attempt of a Spanish reconquest
Lucas Alamán Advisor to: Anastasio Bustamante & Antonio López de Santa Anna Minister and presidential advisor Participated in the Conservative Party In favor of the Church Had Liberal Constitutional ideas: - In favor of division of powers - Preferred a Centralist Republic in order to better organize the country - Promoted Mexico's industrialization
First Liberal Reforms 1833 Promoted by liberals: Valentín Gómez Farías, José María Luis Mora, Lorenzo de Zavala - Abolished clergy and military "fueros" - Took away property of the Church - Public shcools - National guard - National Library, Museum, University
The Central Republic Constitution of the Seven Laws 1835 Reaction of the Liberal Reforms of 1833 by the Church and the military: "Religion and privileges" President Santa Ana expelled the liberals New Congress New Constitution: Seven Laws (1835) Conservative Power Presidential Period of 8 years
Types of Government in Mexico First half of the XIX Century 1. First Empire: Iturbide (1822-1823) 2. First Federal Republic (1824-1835) - Guadalupe Victoria, Guerrero, Bustamante, Gómez Farías 3. Central Republic (1835-1846) - Santa Anna, Bustamante, Bravo
- Texas protested the new Central government (Seven Laws) and rebelled in favor of a Federal system - U.S. nationals outnumbered Tejanos - Santa Anna advanced in "El Álamo" but was defeated in 1836 - Treaties of Velasco: Texas Independence
Types of Government in Mexico Second half of the XIX Century Federal Republic (1846-1863) - Santa Anna, Gómez Farías, Comonfort, Juárez Second Empire - Maximilian Restored Republic - Juárez & Lerdo de Tejada
Two consequences of the Central Republic (loss of territory) 1. Texas Independence in 1836 2. Yucatán Peninsula secession in 1837
First French Intervention in Mexico 1838-18 "Pastry War" France demanded reparations from damages to French businesses in the Mexican revolts, including damages to a bakery $600,000 pesos The French attacked San Juan de Ulúa & the port of Veracruz
The Organic Bases 1841 and 1843 There were two different Organic Bases that modified the Constitution of 1835 (Seven Laws) and ended Anastasio Bustamante's presidency: a) 1841 (Tacubaya) - Federal regime b) 1843 - Central regime led by Santa Anna
U.S. - MEXICO WAR 1846 - 1848 CAUSES Mexico had not recognized the Independence of Texas US expansion policy (Manifest Destiny, President Polk) Mexican troops in Texas caused the US to declare War
US - MEXICO WAR BATTLES AND CONSEQUENCES General Scott took Veracruz & Puebla Mexico's forces were divided - between centralists and federalists The US army took Mexico City in 1847 Santa Anna was defeated Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 Mexico lost half of its territory
Antonio López de Santa Anna His Highness Santa Anna came back to power after the loss of the US-Mexico war He suspended the Constitution and declared himself a dictator in 1853
The Ayutla Revolution against Santa Anna Lead by Juan Álvarez with a group of liberals that came back from exile: Melchor Ocapmo, Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, Benito Juárez Ends Santa Anna dictatorship Elections for a Constitutional Congress
The liberal Program Juan Álvarez Ignacio Comonfort As the new Constitutional Congress deliberated, the governments of Juan Álvarez and Ignacio Comonfort promulgated the first liberal laws: Juárez Law Iglesias Law Lerdo Law
JUÁREZ LAW After Benito Juárez Abolished privileges and exemptions of the Church and the military
IGLESIAS LAW After José María Iglesias Eliminated the government obligation to demand the payment of the tithe (diezmo) to the Church Tithe or diezmo = 1/10 of people's income
LERDO LAW After Miguel Lerdo de Tejada (brother of Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada) Promoted the sale of lands owned by religious and civil corporations (ejidos)
On February 5th, 1857 a new Constitution was promulgated 1. Federal Republic 2. Individual guarantees: liberty, property 3. Recognized Catholicism, but allowed for religious tolerance
REFORMA WAR or War of Three Years 1858-1861 The liberal Constitution of 1857 caused disagreement among the conservative groups (Church, military, landowners) Ignacio Comonfort pacted the cancellation of the Constitution (Tacubaya Plan) Juárez fights to defend the Constitution
The fight between Liberals and Conservatives Liberal side - Benito Juárez, establishes his government in Veracruz Conservative side - Féliz Zuloaga and Miguel Miramón in Mexico City
In Veracruz, Juárez promotes a series of laws that seek to complete the Liberal Reform: 1. Separation of State and Church 2. Civil Registry and Calendar 3. Religious freedom 4. Nationalization of Church property
Second French Intervention 1861-1867 Juárez won the Reform War 1861 - Juárez suspended all the debt payments to foreign countries 1862 - Spain, UK and France landed in Veracruz, only the French stayed 5 de mayo - Battle of Puebla 1863- The French took Mexico City, Juárez exiled in El Paso & Chihuahua
Second Empire Maximilian I 1864-1867 The Conservatives negotiated with the Vatican and France the creation of a European Monarchy in Mexico 1864 - Maximilian of Habsburg was declared Emperor of Mexico, supported by the French troops of Napoleon III
End of the Maximilian Empire and the Second French Intervention 1867 1867 - France started war with Prusia - The US Civil War came to an end and supported Juárez - The French government retired its troops - Maximilian I was left alone - The liberals defeated the conservatives and executed Maximilian in QRO.
The Restored Republic 1867-1876 Period in which Juárez gets back to power in 1867 until Porifirio Díaz becomes president in 1876
In the 1871 elections, Juárez did not obtain a clear majority against Lerdo de Tejada and Porifiro Díaz Díaz started an uprising (Noria Plan) but he was defeated
Porfirio Díaz reaches the Presidency 1876 1872 - Juárez died without finishing his presidential period Lerdo de Tejada substituted him 1875 - Lerdo de Tejada won the elections, but José María Iglesias and Porfirio Díaz denounced fraud 1876 - Díaz takes power through the Tuxtepec Plan
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