Infection and response

sofia Larrain
Flashcards by sofia Larrain, updated more than 1 year ago


3º de ESO Biology (Topic 3: Infections and Response) Flashcards on Infection and response, created by sofia Larrain on 04/25/2018.
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What are pathogens? -Are microorganisms that enter the body and cause disease.
What is the cause of Pathogens entering the body? -It's a communicable (infectious) disease that can easily be spread.
How do they reproduce? How do they realise new viruses? -The reproduce inside your body quickly. They reproduce inside your cells replicating themselves. Produce copies of themselves. -They will burst, releasing all the new viruses. This cells damage is what makes you feel ill.
how do they live and how do they cause damage? Parasites live on or inside other organisms and can cause them damage.
How do they transfer to the organism? This does not mean they will get the disease itself. - By a vector which carries the disease.
how are the cells of a fungi classified? -They are single-celled. -Other types have a body which is made up of hyphae (thread-like structure.)
How do hyphae cause disease? -They can grow and penetrate human skin and the surface of plants.
What is the cause of hyphae? -The can produce pores, which can be spread to other plants and animals.
How can pathogens be spread? -Water -Air -Direct contact
From the ways/bullet points from before explain each of them: And give examples: Water-can be picked up by drinking or bathing in dirty water. E.g- cholera is a bacterial infection that's spread by drinking contaminated water with diarrhoea of other sufferers.
From the ways/bullet points from before explain each of them: And give examples: Air- pathogens can be carried by air and can then be breathed in Some airborne pathogens are carried in the air in droplets produced when coughing or sneezing. E.g- the influenza virus that causes flu is spread this way.
From the ways/bullet points from before explain each of them: And give examples: Direct contact- some pathogens can be picked up by touching contaminate surface, including the skin. E.g- athletes foot is a fungus which makes skin itch and flake off. It's most commonly spread by touching the same things as an infected person. E.g-shower floors and towels.
viral diseases. -Measles- spread by droplets -complications like pneumonia. -Most people are vaccinated.
Viral diseases. -HIV-sexual contact, or by bodily fluids such as blood. -flu-like symptoms for a few weeks. -controlled with antiretroviral drugs. attacks immune cells.
viral disease. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) virus affects many species of plants. -E.g-tomatoes. -causes a mosaic pattern on the leaves of the plants, parts become discoloured. -plant can’t carry photosynthesis as well, so viruses affect growth.
Fungal diseases -rose black spot: fungus causes purple or black spots develop leaves rose plants. -less photosynthesis don’t grow very well. -spreads through water or wind. -treat this disease with fungicides and by stripping.
Disease caused by protist: -malaria repeated episodes of fever. -life cycle inside mosquito. Mosquitoes are vectors. They feed on infected animal. -infects it inserting the protist into animal blood vessel. -stops mosquitoes from breeding. -protected from mosquitoes using insecticides and mosquitoes nets.
Bacterial diseases -Salmonella: causes food poisoning. -suffer: fever stomach cramps, vomiting and diarrhoea. -causes by toxins.
Bacterial diseases Gonorrhoea- sexual transmitted disease. -causes by bacteria. -Symptoms-pain when urinating. Thick yellow green discharge from the vagina or penis. -treated by antibiotics called penicillin. Barrier methods of contraception such as condoms.
How can diseases be reduced or prevented? -being hygienic: washing your hands. -destroying vectors: insects, insecticides, destroying habitat. -isolating infected individuals: isolate someone prevents passing it on. -Vaccination: can’t develop infection and then pass it on.
Pathogens foto Answer Text Carga móvil (image/jpeg)
Antibodies what are they? -unique molecules (antigens) -foreign antigen: proteins called antibodies. -antibodies produced rapidly all similar bacteria or viruses. - Carga móvil (image/jpeg)
Vaccination- protect from future infections 1) when infected with a new pathogen takes white blood cells takes few days to know how to deal with it. 2) vaccinations involve injecting small amounts of dead or inactive pathogens. Antibodies attack them. 3) but live pathogens of the same type appear after that, white blood cells can rapidly mass-produced antibodies to kill pathogens.
Vaccination Introduce tu texto aquí... Carga móvil (image/jpeg)
Pros of vaccination what are they? 1) controls lots of comunicable disease which are common like E.g-measles, polio, whooping cough, rubella, mumps, tetanus. -smallpox: no longer occurs -polio: has been reduced by 99%
Pros of vaccination what are they? -epidemics (big outbreaks of disease.) prevented in large percentage. People not vaccinated will be unlikely they will get it.
What are the CONS of vaccination? 1) doesn’t always work doesn’t give immunity. 2) sometimes bad reactions can happen. E.g swelling, serious like fever or seizures.) Even though bad reactions are very rare.
Drugs which realice symptoms others cure problems which are they explain fully: Introduce tu texto aquí... Carga móvil (image/jpeg)
Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics how does this occur? V Carga móvil (image/jpeg)
Many drugs originally came from plants, examples how do they work and who invented to kill bacteria? Introduce tu texto aquí... Carga móvil (image/jpeg)
There are three main stages in drug testing explain briefly which are they? 1a) tested in human cells tissues. b) some drugs affect whole/multiple body system some a drugs for blood pressure must be Done in animal. 2a) preclinical test drug on live animals. Test efficacy wether it (works effects toxicity)(how harmful it is) find best dosage how much how often. b) any new drug tested two different live mammals. Cruel way or safest way to test.
There are three main stages in drug testing explain briefly which are they? 3a) drug passes test then tested in healthy human volunteers in a clinical trial. b) make sure doesn’t have harmful side effects of body works normally. Beginning low dose gradually increased. c) drugs can be tested on people suffering from illnesses. Optimum dose found- which is most effective +side effective. d) patients randomly out into Teo groups. Some giving new drug other placebo. Doctor can see difference. e) clinical trials are blind doctors analyses+ monitors results. f) trials aren’t published until they’ve seen through peer view. Prevents false claims.
Monoclonal antibodies are identical antibodies B-lymphocytes, tumour cells, monoclonal antibodies, hybridoma explain each: 1)B-lymphocytes: type of white blood cell. 2)Monoclonal antibodies produced from lots of clones of a single white blood cell all antibodies are identical. Target specific protein antigen. 3) lymphocyte that made the antibody don't divide very easily. 4)Tumour cells don't produce antibodies but divide lots. they grow very easily. 5)possible to fuse a mouse B-lymphocyte with tumour cell to create cell called hybridoma. 6)hybridoma cells can be cloned to get indetical cells. Produce same antibodies (monoclonal antibodies.) collected and purified. 7)monoclonal antibodies can be bind to anything only bind to target a specific molecule.
Monoclonal amtibodies (Foto) Img 1104 (binary/octet-stream)
Monoclonal antibodies are used in pregnancy tests hoe do they work? A hormone called HCG found in urine of woman only when they are pregnant. Pregnancy test detect this hormone
Monoclonal antibodies are used in pregnancy tests hoe do they work? If preagnant urine moves up carrying hormone to beads. Beads hormone bind to the antibodies on the strip. Turning it blue the beads to the strip.
Monoclonal antibodies are used in pregnancy tests hoe do they work? If not pregnant urine still moves up the stick carrying blue beads. Does not stick to the blue beads so it doesn't go blue.
Monoclonal antibodies (Foto) Img 1105 (binary/octet-stream)
Monoclonal antibodies can be used to treat diseases how do they work? Cancer cells have antigens on their cell membranes aren’t found in normal body cells. Called tumour markers. Anti-cancer drug radioactive, toxic drug stops cancerous cells growing+diving. Only target specific cells.
Monoclonal antibodies can be used to treat diseases (Foto) Introduce tu texto aquí... Carga móvil (image/jpeg)
What can monoclonal antibodies can be used to? 1) bind to hormones and other chemicals in blood to measure their levels. 2) test blood samples in the laboratories for certain pathogens. 3) locate specific molecules on a cell or in a tissue: -bind specific cells dye fluorescent. Molecules presented in sample attach to them.
Monoclonal antibodies have some problems at the same time there is advantages what are they? 1) the advantage is cancer treatment. But (chemotherapy and radiotherapy.) can affect normal body cells as well as killing cancer cells. 2) can cause more side effects than expected. Cause fever, vomiting and low blood pressure. 3) they are not widely used as treatments.
Plants need mineral ions where do they get it from what is it used for? 1) get it from the soil if they haven't got enough they ha e deficiency symptoms. 2) Nitrates needed to make proteins for growth. Lack of nitrate causes stunted growth. 3) Magnesium ions for making chlorophyll, for photosynthesis. Without enough magnesium suffer from chlorosis and have yellow leaves.
Plants can get diseases what can they be infected by? -viral -bacterial -fungal pathogens
Plants can get diseases what can they be infected by? Give examples: Damaged by insects. Like aphids insect damage to plants.
Common signs that plants diseases get are? -Stunted growth -Abnormal growths e.g lumps -Spots on the leaves -Malformed stems or leaves -Patches of decay (rot) -Discolouration
How can the gardeners discover the signs which a plants has? 1) gardening manual or on a gardening website. 2) laboratory to get it tested. 3) testing kits identify pathogens using monoclonal antibodies.
Plants have physical defences which are they? Introduce tu texto aquí... Carga móvil (image/jpeg)
Plants have chemical defences which are they? Introduce tu texto aquí... Carga móvil (image/jpeg)
Plants have mechanical defences which are they? Introduce tu texto aquí... Carga móvil (image/jpeg)
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