Respiratory and Gaseous Exchang

Konrad O'Neill
Flashcards by Konrad O'Neill, updated more than 1 year ago
Konrad O'Neill
Created by Konrad O'Neill almost 8 years ago


Cambridge IGCSE Biology (Respitory System and Gaseous Exchange) Flashcards on Respiratory and Gaseous Exchang, created by Konrad O'Neill on 07/08/2013.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Breathing/Ventilation The process that moves air in and out of the lungs.
Gaesous Exchange The exchange of O2 and CO2 at the lung's surface
Respiration The chemical process that takes place in every living cell which releases the energy stored in glucose molecules
Diffusion in Gaseous Exchange Diffusion is the NET movement of particles from a region of THEIR high conc to THEIR low conc DOWN the CONC GRADIENT as a result of their RANDOM MOVEMENT
How to inc rate of Diffusion -inc temp -inc SA:V -inc conc gradient -reduce distance of diffusion pathway
How lungs inc rate of Diff -alveoli, only 1 cell thick, so diffusion pathway is small -millions of folded alveoli inc SA:V -ventilation helps maintain a steep conc gradient -rich blood supply also helps maintain a steep conc gradient
diagram of lungs
Epiglottis A flap which closes over the TRACHEA when swallowing food so that food and liquid do not enter the LUNGS
Trachea A tube held together by RINGS of CARTILAGE. The tube is lined with SCILIA and covered in MUCUS to trap and remove DUSTand MICROBES to the back of the throat for swallowing.
Bronchi and Bronchioles The trachea branches to form many smaller and smaller tubes to inc the SA:V of the lungs
Alveoli Millions of tiny folded air sacs to inc SA:V. They are covered in tiny capillaries to maintain a steep CONC GRADIENT.
Intercostal Muscles These CONTRACT to pull the ribs up and down when INHALING to incvolume of the thorax.
Ribs Form a rib cage to PROTECT the lungs. these are pulled up during INHALEMENT and drop back during EXHALEMENT
Diaphragm This large muscle CONTARCTS and FLATTENS when INHALING to inc the volume of the thorax. this cause air to move int the lungs. When it relaxes it returns to a DOME SHAPE which dec the volume of the thorax. this cause air to move OUT of the lungs.
Rings Of Cartilage These are incomplete, C-shaped hoops pf cartilage in the trachea, the opem part facing the oesophagus and allowing it to bulge slightly during swallowing
Scilia -The trachea, bronchi and the larger bronchioles are lined with a ciliated epithelium. -Cilia moves mucus from the lungs and trachea to pharynx where it is swallowed. -Goblet cells are found in ciliated epithelium of the trachea, bronchi and larger bronchioles
Goblet cells produce mucus Mucus traps stuff like microbes and fine dust particles
After exercise the volume of air breathed out would be greater than before exercise because the rate of repiration was increaded to increase the amount of energy needed for exercise After exercise the volume of CO2 in air breathed out is greater due to an increased rate of respiration more co2 is produced which diffuses and travels in the plasma and diffuses into the alveoli increasing the conc which resultrs in more co2 given off
explain why a large amount of O2 enters the blood - alveoli have a large SA:V -this inc rate of diffusion -alveolar wall and capillary wall only 1 cell thick -thus reducing the diffusion pathway -alveoli have a rich blood supply which maintains a steep conc gradient - Inhalation and Exhalation also help maintain a steep conc gradient
Asthma In an asthmatic attack, the fine tubes leading to the alveoli getting narrower. This reduces air flow into and out of the alveoli
Emphysema This disease is also caused by long term irratation of the lungs, such as by smoking, air pollution or industrial dust. it results in the breakdown of the walls of the alevoli. This reduces their surface area.
Chronic Bronchitis This disease is caused by long term irritation to the lungs, such as by smoking. The irritation causes cells in the lungs to produce much more mucus than usual. The mucus blocks fine tubes in the lungs, reducing the amount of air that can get to and from the alveoli.
Pneumonia Some bacterial and viral infections can cause toxins and fluids to be released into the lungs, filling alveoli. if a large proportion of both lungs are affected the patient may need additional oxygen to survive infection
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