Human Bio. Midterm 2 : Body Organization and Hierarchy

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Flashcards on Human Bio. Midterm 2 : Body Organization and Hierarchy , created by michellelynnlebl on 11/04/2014.

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Question Answer
System Organization Cells Tissues Organs Organ systems
Cell theory (3 points) All living organisms are made of cells Smallest unit of life All cells come from pre-existing cells
Eukaryotic cells : what do they make up? what are they not? what are some examples of eukaryotic cells? what is their size compared to prokaryotes? • Eukaryotic cells make up all eukaryotic organisms. • Eukaryotic = all organisms that are not bacteria (bacteria is prokaryotic|) • Eukaryotic includes plants, animals, fungi, etc. • Usually magnitude 10 larger than eukaryotic cells, contain more info, etc. nucleus
Endosymbiotic theory • States that eukaryotic cells came about as a result of different types of prokaryotic cells entering into symbiotic or endosymbiotic relationships.
What are organelles? A bunch of subcellular structures that each have a unique function that keep the cell healthy
Organelle : Nucleus (4) what does it house? what does it serve as? surrounded by what? studded with what which does what? • Houses DNA (which has instructions for proteins) • Serves as control system (can get hijacked by viruses) • Surrounded by two membranes that form the nuclear envelope. • Nuclear envelope is studded with nuclear pores which regulate traffic in and out of nucleus.
Organelle : Cytosol what is it and what does it contain? • Watery matrix between nucleus and outer cell boundary (contains salts and necessary enzymes)
What does the cytoplasm include? • Includes cytosol and organelles
Organelle: Mitochondria. What does it do? What is it surrounded by, separated by and what does that do? • Manufactures cellular energy • Surrounded by inner and outer membranes separated by intermembrane space (this carries proteins involved in ATP production)
What is matrix the site of? Matrix is the site of reactions that releases energy from nutrients.
Organelle : Lysosomes (3) involved in what? what do they degrade? what do they engulf? • Involved in energy release from nutrients • Are membrane-enclosed sacs of enzymes which degrade carbs, fats and proteins. • Roam around cell and engulf nutrients and dead and dying organelles; recyclers.
Organelle : Ribosomes What join here to form what? WHere are they constructed? Where do they float or attach to? • Sites where amino acids are joined to form proteins. • Constructed in the nucleus and shipped to the cytosol via nuclear pores. • Found free floating in the cytosol or bound to the endoplasmic reticulum.
Where are proteins produced and what they the basis of? Ribosomes Proteins form the basis of some phenotypes
What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum? WHat is it involved in? What is it called when there are ribosomes attached? When there's not? • A network of membranes running from the nuclear envelope into cytosol • ER with ribosomes attached = rough ER • ER without = Smooth ER • ER is involved with detoxifying harmful substances and synthesizing lipids
What is the Golgi apparatus and what is it's function? • A stack of membranous sacs • It packages and labels items (proteins) which it then sends to different parts of the cell.
What is the cytoskeleton and what does it help maintain? • A network of filaments and tubules composed of proteins • Helps a cell maintain its shape and move
What is the plasma membrane? What does it do? What does it serve a barrier as? Is it permeable or semi-permeable? • The outermost boundary of a cell • Isolates the cell’s contents from the environment • Serves as a barrier that determines which substances enter and the leave the cell • Semi-permeable
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