Ornithology Exam 3

Abby Bickle
Flashcards by Abby Bickle, updated more than 1 year ago
Abby Bickle
Created by Abby Bickle over 1 year ago
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Flashcards on Ornithology Exam 3, created by Abby Bickle on 11/14/2018.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Examples of visual communication functions species recognition, territory claiming, attraction/courtship, predator defense/distraction
Why have visual displays It helps to avoid physical conflicts, conserving energy and avoiding injury
Ritualized behavior Follows a pattern to convey certain messages
Aggressive visual displays crest displays, wing displays, bill displays; to assert dominance/threaten other bird
Alerting visual displays flock flushing, misleading predators (e.g. broken wing)
Begging visual displays nestlings/fledglings opening mouths for food
Mating visual displays mock feeding (pheasant picking); feather displays (mating plumage, positioning); structure building (bower birds); body positioning (head displays e.g. common goldeye duck)
Types of vocalizations alarm/stress; contact calls; songs (generally male specific except raptors)
vocalization complexity simple (chirps, for alarm/stress/contact); complex (songs, for mating, territorial, mimicry)
Mammal larynx vs bird syrinx mammal = up high, one tube bird = down low, two tubes
respiratory muscles external intercostals (pull air in); apendicostalis (move muscles in ribs); rectus abdominus (up and down); transversus (across)
Syringeal muscles Control complex song production; intrinsic (inside) + extrinsic (outside)
Regions of the brain Hyperpallium -> Mesopallium -> Nidopallium -> Archopallium; Area X (males only)
Neural control of song High Vocal Center (nidopall.) -> Robust Nucleus (Archo.) -> Tracheosyringeal motor nucleus (brain stem) -> syringeal muscles
Song Learning Pathway Left Hemisphere; Magnocellular nucleus of anterior neostriatum (MAN) -> Area X -> HVC; work in recursive loop for learning
zeitgebers external cues that effect internal processes (e.g. day-length/light -> molting, migration, gonad size, hormones, etc.)
Pituitary hormones Follicle stimulating; growth hormone; lutenizing hormone; prolactin + oxytocin;
zugunruhe migratory restlessness
Female bird anatomy only left ovaries, right side reduced
Examples of polyandry spotted sandpiper, sandarlings, wilsons phalarope, red phalarope
cooperative breeding helpers, usually male offspring from prev. broods, help tend to young; red cockaded woodpeckers + scrub jays
mound nesters Megapodes (australian brushturkey); bury eggs in large mound with organic material on top; no incubation/turning; rotting organic matter warms eggs
simple ground nesters killdeer, chuck-wills-widow, whip-poor-will
stick nesters most typical; cardinals, blue jays, etc.
woven nests vireos, african weavers
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