(As) Chemistry: Electrons, Bonding And Structure OCR

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Flashcards on (As) Chemistry: Electrons, Bonding And Structure OCR, created by hannah3g on 11/07/2014.

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Question Answer
Plasma A mixture of positive and negative electrons.
First ionisation energy (1st I.E) Is the energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions.
What is the first ionisation energy of Sodium? Na(g) ----> Na+(g) + e-
Factors affecting ionisation energy: *Atomic Radius *Nuclear Charge *Electron shielding
The greater the atomic radius... The smaller the nuclear attraction experienced by outer electrons.
The greater the nuclear charge... The greater the attractive force on the outer electrons.
Electronic Shielding Is the repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. Shielding reduces the net attractive force from the positive nucleus on the outer-shell electrons.
The more inner shells... *The larger the electronic shielding *The smaller the nuclear attraction experienced by outer electrons.
Successive ionisation energies Are a measure of the energy required to remove each electron in turn.
Second ionisation energy Is the energy required to remove one electron from each ion in one mole of gaseous 1+ ions to form one mole of gaseous 2+ ions.
What is the second ionisation energy of Lithium? Li+(g) --> Li2+(g) + e-
Evidence for shells Successive ionisation energies.
Shell Is a group of atomic orbitals with the same principal quantum number, n.
Principle quantum number (n) Is a number representing the relative overall energy of each orbital, which increases with distance from the nucleus.
Atomic orbital Is a region within an atom that can hold up to two electrons, with opposite spins.
What's the formula for how many electrons each shell holds? 2n squared
How many electrons in shell.. *1 *2 *3 *4 Shell 1 has 2 electrons. Shell 2 has 8 electrons. Shell 3 has 18 electrons. Shell 4 has 32 electrons.
What shape is a s-orbital? Spherical shape.
What shape is a p-orbital? Dumb-bell shape.
How many s-orbitals in one shell? One s-orbital per shell.
How many p-orbitals in one shell? Three p-orbitals per shell.
How many d-orbitals in one shell? Five d-orbitals per shell.
How many f-orbitals in one shell? Seven f-orbitals per shell.
Sub-shell Is a group of the same type of atomic orbitals (s,p,d or f) within a shell.
What is the order of sub-shells by energy level from smallest to largest? 1s,2s,2p,3s,3p,4s,3d,4p,4d,4f
Electron configuration The arrangement of electrons in an atom.
What is the Aufbau principle? *Electrons are added, one at a time, to 'build up' the atom. *The lowest available energy level is filled first. *Each energy level must be full before the next higher energy level. *Each orbital is filled singly before pairing starts.
What is the electron configuration of Oxygen? 1s(2),2s(2), 2p(4).
When positive ions are formed, electrons are... removed from the highest energy orbital.
When negative ions are formed, electrons are... Added to the highest energy orbital.
What group in the periodic table have elements that are naturally single unbonded atoms? Group 0 (The noble gases)
Octet Rule The tendency for atoms to combine to acquire a noble gas configuration. (8 electrons in their outer shell)
Compound Is a substance formed from two or more chemically bonded elements in a fixed ratio, usually shown by a chemical formula.
What compounds do ionic bonds occur in? Metal and non metal compounds. (Electrons are transferred from the metal atom to the non-metal)
What compounds do covalent bonds occur in? Two non metals. (electrons are shared between the atoms)
Where do metallic bonds occur? In metals. (electrons shared between all atoms)
What is Krypton used in? Lasers for eye surgery.
What is Argon used in? Filament light bulbs.
What is Helium used in? Airships.
What is Neon used in? Advertising signs.
What is Xenon used in? Car headlights.
Ionic bond Is the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Giant ionic lattice Is a three-dimensional structure of oppositely charged ions, held together by strong ionic bonds. Eg. NaCl.
A group Is a vertical column in the Periodic Table. Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties and their atoms have the same number of outer-shell electrons.
What is the overall charge of an ionic compound? Zero.
What are the charges of: *NO3 *CO3 *SO4 *NH4 *(NO3)- *(CO3)2- *(SO4)2- *(NH4)+
Covalent bond Is a bond formed by a shared pair of electrons.
How many covalent bonds do the following atoms of these elements form? C,N,O,H C: 4 covalent bonds N: 3 covalent bonds O: 2 covalent bonds H: 1 covalent bond
Lone pair Is an outer-shell pair of electrons that is not involved in chemical bonding.
The sharing of two pairs of electrons forms... A double bond. eg. O=O
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