Triple Biology - Paper B: Osmosis, Diffusion, AT, Cardiovascular System, Blood.

Shannon Bradner
Flashcards by Shannon Bradner, updated 11 months ago
Shannon Bradner
Created by Shannon Bradner 11 months ago
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Triple Biology - Paper B flashcards

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Question Answer
What side of the heart carries deoxygenated blood? The right side..
What side of the heart carries oxygenated blood? The left side.
What is in the heart and veins that stop the back-flow of blood? Valves.
What is the biggest artery in the body? The aorta.
What transports oxygenated blood into the heart? The pulmonary vein.
What is the section at the top of the heart called (either the left or the right...)? Atrium.
What is at the bottom section of the heart called (either the left or the right...)? Ventricle.
What sort of muscles make up the heart? Cardiac muscles.
What are three adaptions of the heart? 1) There are lots of mitochondria to supply energy to the heart muscles. 2) The heart has thicker walls on the left side as the blood it pumps has further to travel and requires more energy. 3) The aorta has two coronary arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the heart.
Where does blood become oxygenated? At the aveoli.
In what direction do arteries carry blood? Away from the heart.
(Except the pulmonary artery) what type of blood do the arteries carry? Oxygenated blood.
Name 3 adaptions of the arteries. 1) Strong, elastic, thin walls for movement. 2) Small lumen, creating a higher pressure and removing the necessity for valves. 3) Have elastic fibres for strength.
What direction do the veins carry blood in? To the heart.
(Except the pulmonary vein) what type of blood do the veins transport? Deoxygenated.
Explain 2 adaptions of the veins. 1) Low pressure from the large lumen meaning they have valves to prevent backflow. 2) Thin walls for flexibility. 3)
Explain 3 adaptions of the capillaries. 1) Very small for quicker diffusion. 2) Permeable, thin walls so oxygen and carbon dioxide can be transferred. 3) Walls are one cell thick for quicker diffusion.
Can diffusion happen through a partially permeable membrane? Yes.
Define diffusion. The movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration.
During ventilation, why is some oxygen wasted? Diffusion only reaches equilibrium, which means half of the oxygen particles go into the blood stream, and half are exhaled again.
Define osmosis. Diffusion in water molecules through a partially permeable membrane.
What can slow the effect of osmosis and why? The concentration of the solute because if there are more non-water particles, it takes longer for equilibrium to be reached.
Define active transport. The movement of particles from a low concentration to a high concentration using energy.
Why do cells in the gut use active transport to absorb nutrients? There is a higher concentration of nutrients in the gut than outside, and the gut needs to absorb nutrients rather than loose them, meaning active transport is necessary.
Compare osmosis, AT and diffusion. . AT requires energy; O & D do not. . AT goes against the concentration gradient, O & D goes with it. . O only happens in water molecules. . O & D diffusion can pass through a partially permeable membrane. . AT is used when absorbing minerals and glucose.
Name the four components of blood. Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma.
Where does carbon dioxide go before it reaches the lungs? It diffuses into the plasma.
Explain the adaptions of red blood cells. . A biconcave shape for a larger surface area to store more oxygen. . No nucleus to store more oxygen. . Contain haemoglobin to bond with oxygen.
When combined, what does oxygen and haemoglobin make? Oxyhaemoglobin.
Describe the function of the white blood cells. They help prevent bacteria from entering the body by absorbing it.
Describe the function of the platelets. They bind together underneath a cut to clot and prevent bacteria from entering the blood stream.
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