Strategic Management, Leadership & Organizational Change (HPI4008)

Noor Shoukri
Flashcards by , created 7 months ago

This course is part of the master in Healthcare Policy, Innovation & Management (Maastricht University).

Noor Shoukri
Created by Noor Shoukri 7 months ago
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Question Answer
What are the six steps that have to be taken to realize the strategic management process. The six steps are: 1. Formulating A Goal 2. Scanning the environment 3. Formulating A Strategy 4. Evaluating The Strategy 5. Implementing The Strategy 6. Controlling The Strategy
List the two types of strategies which can be used in healthcare organizations. In addition, provide examples for each type. 1) Generic Strategies (which include Cost Leadership, Differentiation; both can be either narrow or broad focussed). 2) International Strategies, both tightly coupled strategies (e.g. Alliances, Trade Associations, Interlocking Directorates) and loosely coupled strategies (e.g. Joint Ventures, Networks, Consortiums).
List three important theories which help to explain the behaviour and actions of organizations within a competitve environment based on the strategies they develop. Important theories include: - Resource Dependence Theory - Contingency Theory - Institutional Theory
List three important aspects organization should develop, before deciding on which strategy they want to choose and implement. Organizations should decide beforehand which values, mission and vision they want to follow before deciding how to achieve this. The organization needs to have a clear purpose before people start executing tasks.
List the 8 different approaches with regards to strategy formulation. 1) Planned Approach 2) Entrepreneurial Approach 3) Ideological Approach 4) Umbrella Oriented Approach 5) Process Oriented Approach 6) Unconnected Approach 7) Consensus Oriented Approach 8) Imposed Approach
List which type of analysis can be used to analyze the external environment. For the analysis of the external analysis, Porter's Five Forces analysis can be used.
Which type of sectors are part of the external environment? The 10 types of sectors that are part of the external environment are: a) Industry, b) Raw Materials, c) Human Resources, d) Financial Resources, e) Market, f) Technological Sector, g) Economic Conditions, h) Government, i) Sociocultural Sector and j) International Sector
Which important assumptions does the Resource Dependence Theory make with regards to how organizations make strategic decisions? 1) There is a need for external resources 2) Resources are controlled by external entities/stakeholders 3) Organizations are therefore dependent on their external environment. 4) There is an ongoing competition to acquire these resources. 5) Organizations are interdependent on each other and therefore have to manage their resources to gain an advantage.
Which important assumptions does the Contingency Theory make with regards to how organizations make strategic decisions? 1) There is no single best way to structure an organization. 2) The external environment dictates the appropriate organizational structure. 3) Aspects of the External Environment (Contingencies) can impact an organizations' level of complexity and uncertainty.
What are ways to analyze the internal environment of an organization? The internal environment of an organization can be analyzed using 1) The Extra-Resource-Based View of the Firm 2) Porter's Value Chain and 3) SWOT-analysis.
Which four important qualities should resource have in order to be considered essential for an organization to acquire. Resources should possess the following four qualities: 1) Valuable 2) Rare 3) Imperfectly Imitable 4) Non-substitutable
Which important assumptions does the Institutional Theory make with regards to how organizations make strategic decisions? Regulative, Normative, and Cognitive Institutions are responsible for imposing rules and conditions that organizations which forces organizations to behave more similar by promoting principles of coercive, mimetic or normative isomorphism.
Which four types of issues are managers/administrators dealing with when looking at how to lead professionals? 1) Uncertainty about who should lead the organization. 2) No plan available to educate leaders 3) Unclear outcomes of leadership roles 4) Need for a more systematic approach to leadership
Which 7 items described by the healthcare triangle model have to be taken into account when managing professionals that work for a healthcare organization? 1) Focus is on patient centeredness 2) Practice guidelines are required 3) Professionals have expertise 4) Guidelines diminish role of expertise, despite it forming the base of guidelines 5) Practice guidelines decrease the need for expertise, but increase its relevancy 6) Guidelines reduce decision-making of patients, practice guidelines increase It 7) Conflicts arise when emphasizing too much patient centeredness, practice guidelines and/or professional expertise.
Which type of factors help to create more favorable engagement and foster stronger relationships between managers and professionals? 1) Individual factors 2) Work related factors 3) Outcome related factors
Provide a list with 5 problems that professional organizations have difficulties to effectively deal with. 1) Cannot Control Knowledge Skills of Professionals 2) Coordination Problems 3) Discretion Problems 4) Innovation Problems 5) Dysfunctional Responses
Describe 4 important features of professional organizations. 1) Coordination by standardization of knowledge & skills. 2) Bureaucracy, because they are driven by standard set of rules and regulations. 3) Type of organizations can vary (e.g. large/small, mature/new etc.) 4) Provide personal service
According to Mintzberg, what are the 5 parts that determine how organizations are structured? The five parts that determine the structure of an organization are: 1) Strategic Apex/Top 2) Middle Line 3) Operating Core (Professionals) 4) Technostructure 5) Support Staff
What are the main features of a professional organization? 1) Professionals Who Belong to a Community (Social System) 2) Knowledge & Skill Required For Work (Occupation)
Which variables/constraints are required by professional organizations to develop the professional field and the profession itself? 1) Type of work is legally recognized 2) Division of labour is determined by the occupation/practioners themselves 3) There is occupational control of the labour market 4) Professional schooling is mandatory 5) State is involved (in various forms) 6) Ideologies and values are present 7) Variation in knowledge and skill
Name a list of 10 types of philosophy which help to achieve organizational change. 1) Biological Philosophy 2) Rational Philosophy 3) Institutional Philosophy 4) Resource Philosophy 5) Contingency Philosophy 6) Psychological Philosophy 7) Political Philosophy 8) Cultural Philosophy 9) Systems Philosophy 10) Post-Modern Philosophy
List the four categories of change management strategies. 1) Power-Coercive 2) Emperical-Rational 3) Normative-Educative 4) Barter
Which type of colors, within the theory of color thinking, can be used to achieve change within an organization. 1) Yellow 2) Blue 3) Red 4) Green 5) White
Which factors could be impacted when change takes effect within an organization? 1) Organizational Behaviour 2) People 3) (Support) Structures 4) Cultures 5) Systems 5) Mission, Vision & Strategy
What are the four steps to start implementing change? 1) Diagnosis 2) Change Strategy 3) Intervention Plan 4) Interventions
Which four types of irrational mechanisms can sabotage or block change? 1) Loosely Coupled Systems 2) (Micro) Managing & Being Managed 3) Chaos Thinking 4) Sociopolitical Mechanisms
Which types of leadership styles can be employed to help achieve change within an organization? 1) Transactional Leadership 2) Transformational Leadership