Forensic psychology OCR- Turning to crime - Upbringing

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Flashcards on Forensic psychology OCR- Turning to crime - Upbringing , created by lauratyler on 12/17/2014.

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What are the 3 studies within upbringing? Disrupted families- Farrington(1994) Criminal careers and life success : Delinquent development Learning from others: Sutherland (1934) Principles of criminology Poverty and Disadvantage neighborhoods: Wilkstorm and Tafel : Finding from the Peterborough study
Background Theory to Farrington Bowlby : worked with disturbed adolescents and theorized that children who are unloved are likely to become uncaring, delinquent individuals. He believed that traumatic separation may cause deprivation therefore do as they wish (material deprivation). This may result to affectionless psychopaths.
Farrington participants ? 411 boys age 8-9 years old from 6 state schools London til they were aged 48
How many males were still alive in Farrington study? At age 48, 394 males still alive, 365 interviewed
Farrington aim ? To document the start and end of offending behvaiour from childhood to adulthood. To identify any risk or protective factors and life events.
What is Farrington Design ? Longitudinal study - Interviews were conducted when the boys were little and then re interviewed at age 48 in there own home.Investigation of convictions , biological parents and sibling.
What are Farringtons results ? When the boys were 48 404 participant were searched for criminal convictions. Only 161 participants convicted. Boys that convicted from ages of 10 to 13 were re-convicted at least once (91%) 93% off participant admitted to commuting at least one crime through there lives Chronic offenders shared the same common child characteristics i.e convicted parents, large family size, Disrupted families.
The conclusion for Farrington study ? Early prevention to offending can have a wide ranging benefits in reducing problems i.e. aggressive behavior, drugs, alcohol e.t.c
key evaluation point in Farrington study ? - cause and effect can not be established as, the study shows relationship between parental offending and offspring however, they have not been able to offer an causal explanation -study longitudinal thus see development over time however, may suffer from, subject attrtion - reliable however not valid as doesn't look at crime done that not on the system.
is Farrington study useful? The study allows us to understand that key characteristic may occur within the family and life events which may cause offending behavior . Identifying theses behavior will enable to put in place protective factors to prevent offending behavior.
Does the study support situation factors ? The study support the social and environmental factors through life events and parental situations however, offending in families may be due to genetic factors.
Learning from others Bandura: suggests that criminal behavior is learnt via observing others. Theses individuals are known as models and we inmate their behavior depending on situations status e.t.c. known as social learning theory (SLT)
Evaluation of social learning theory - Reductionist doesn't look at cognitive factors - Low ecological validity due to it being mainly in labs -Deterministic
Aim of Sutherland's Theory ? Sutherland uses SLT to Develop a theory of differential association Those who come in to contact with criminal behavior and favour it is seen as abnormal behavior.
What are Sutherland Theory steps? 1.Criminal behaviour is learned 2. Criminal behaviour is learned with interaction with another person through the process of communication. 3. Criminal learns through intimate personal groups 4: When Criminal behaviour is learnt they also, Learn the technique in commit the crime 5. The person is driven by particular motive and drives for example seeing law as, pointless. 6. Individuals become criminals due to repeated contact with them 7. criminal can be measured in a quantitative measure via how many criminals they have. 8.Sutherland say that criminal behvaiour is not special its learnt like every other behaviour. 9. Criminal behaviour is an expression of general needs
Sutherlands summary ? Based on two core assumptions; 1. Deviance occur when people define situations as, appropriate to violet the social norms 2. defintions of situations in someones life is acquire through past life experiences
Sutherlands Conclusion Theory emphasizes the social -psychological processes by which people produce subjective definitions of their life situation
Sutherlands Evaluation -Shows that not all crime are done by deviant psychopaths. - The theory can not explain crimes of passion - The theory is to vague therefore difficult to test the theory.
poverty and disadvantage neighborhoods Messner (1988) looked at structural poverty i.e more than just income i.e. parents etc. The Findings showed stronger relationships between this and crime rates compare to just income alone. Hargreaves (1980) identified that feature in schools can cause high delinquency for example; high staff turnover, low staff commitment, social disadvantages.
Wikstrom and Tajfel The peterbrough study The study looks at the relationship between poverty and crime
What was the method to Wikstrom and Tajifel study? cross sectionial study - Snapshot study which consited of interviews and data collection
What is a cross sectional study ? cross-sectional study is a type of observational study that involves the analysis of data collected from a population, or a representative subset, at one specific point in time—that is, cross-sectional data.
Wikstrom and Tajfel participants ? 14 to 15 year olds from 13 state schools in Peterborough area
Wikstrom and Tajfel procedure ? Consisted of a questionnaire conducted from 2000 - 2001 response rate to this was 92% This was then followed by random sample of 339 who were interviewed with a week of activities which had a logged response rate at 83%
Wikstrom and Tajfel results? 45% males and 31% females committed one of the studied crimes i.e. vandalism , shoplifting etc. 10% males and 4% females commited a serious crime Offenders were often drunk and using drugs than non offenders High frequent offenders committed a wide range of crime
Wikstom and Tajfel conclusion ? strong protective factors implemented for example strong family bonds and school may prevent offending behaviour
Wikstrom and Tajfel evaluation ? Large and reliable sample is used however only used on 14 - 15 year old thus can not be generalized. self report is subjective to social desirability therefore will reduce validity. The study is less reductionist and takes a more hollsit view as it looks at variety of factors . Useful in identifying predictive factors in offending behaviour however this risks labelling and ethics due to labelling. looks at both nurture/social determinism on offending behaviour.
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