Triple Biology - DNA, respiration, enzymes, food tests.

Shannon Bradner
Flashcards by , created 2 months ago

Year 9 Biology Flashcards on Triple Biology - DNA, respiration, enzymes, food tests., created by Shannon Bradner on 05/10/2019.

Shannon Bradner
Created by Shannon Bradner 2 months ago
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Question Answer
What type of structure does DNA have? A double helix.
Explain how DNA is held together. Each base in DNA forms cross links with their complementary pairs on the other strand, keeping both the strands tightly wound together.
Why can DNA be described as a polymer? DNA strands are made up of a sequence of nucleotides. These nucleotides are repeating units, acting as monomers forming the strand.
What are the full names of each of the bases in DNA and which do they pair with? Adenine - Thymine Cytosine - Guanine (You can use the rhyme Angry Turtles Create Glitter)
What is a nucleotide made of? A phosphate, a simple sugar and a base.
Explain the difference between chromosomes, genes and DNA. Chromosomes are in the nucleus. They contain the genes of the cell. These genes contain long strands of coiled up DNA that codes for the cells characteristics.
Where does the synthesizing of proteins happen? In the cytoplasm.
What are proteins made of and what does this therefore make them? Proteins are made of a long chain of amino acids, therefore making them a polymer.
The order of bases in a gene codes for a different order of amino acids in a protein. How many bases in a gene are used to code for one amino acid and what is the official name for it? Three. They are called triplet codes.
Why is mRNA helpful to the cell and what is mRNA? DNA can't move out of the nucleus because it's too big, so the mRNA (which is a single, shorter strand of DNA) is sent into the nucleus to transcript the bases.
What is transcription? Transcription is where the DNA unzips through the middle to allow the mRNA to go through. The mRNA matches the base on the strand to its complementary pair and then leaves the cell.
What is translation? Translation is where the ribosomes read the triplet codes on the mRNA and form the appropriate shape and size amino acid according to that triplet code. Different triplet codes code for different shapes of amino acids. During translation, all the amino acids are joined up to make a protein the DNA in the genes code for.
What are enzymes and what do they do? . They are biological catalysts. . They help to speed up reactions without damaging themselves or being 'used up'. . They are proteins that have a unique shape which it needs to break down the assigned substrate. . They are very specific.
What are the four main parts during an enzyme being used? . Enzyme . Substrate . Active site . Products
Can enzymes only work one way? No, they can both split the substrate into products and form products into substrates.
When enzymes break substrates into products, what is the process called? The Lock and Key method.
Name an example of carbohydrase and what they break down, and what the products are. . Example: Amylase. . Breaks down: Carbohydrates. . Products: Starch and simple sugars.
Give an example of a protease, what they break down and what the products are. . Example: Pepsin. . Breaks down: Protein. . Products: Amino acids.
Give an example of a lipase, what they break down and what the products are. . Example: Lipids. . Break down: Fats and oils. . Products: Glycerol and fatty acids.
Where are carbohydrates, proteins and fats digested? All are digested in the small intestine, but carbohydrates are also digested in the mouth and stomach.
Why don't minerals, vitamins and water have enzymes that break them down? They are already small enough to be digested without needing to become smaller.
What happens to an enzyme when the concentration / pH / temperature gets too high and how does this affect the function of the enzyme? . It denatures. . The active site gets changed so it can't break down the required substrate.
Join up the chemical with what molecule it tests for: Ethanol Starch Iodine Protein Benedict's Fats Buiret's Sugars Ethanol - Fats Iodine - Starch Benedict's - Reducing sugars Buiret's - Protein
After respiration, what is energy stored as so it can be used? ATP
What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? . Aerobic uses oxygen and glucose, anaerobic just uses glucose. . Aerobic produces a lot of energy, anaerobic produces a lot less. . Aerobic releases energy, water and CO2, anaerobic in plants produces latic acid and energy and anaerobic in fungi and yeast produces ethanol and CO2