vertebrate respiration

Samantha bruce
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lecture 4

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Samantha bruce
Created by Samantha bruce 2 months ago
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Question Answer
what are amniotes reptiles birds and mammals - respire through suction breathing
what muscles does the respiration in amniotes involve axial muscles
name the only vertebrate that is devoid of any specialised respiratory structures plethodintid salamander
plethodontid salamanders do not have specialised respiratory structures, why is this and how do they survive - lost longs -rely solely on cutaneous respiration they are small direct developers meaning there is no metamorphic stages
describe the inhalation of amniotes -volume of chest cavity increases and air is drawn in through low pressure
describe the exhalation of amniotes -chest cavity volume decreases -air forced out due to higher pressure
what does the use of axial muscles in the chest cavity mean for the amniotes they can still breath while their mouth is engaged - the ducal pump is still necessary in some amniotes e.g. geckos
describe reptilian lungs -paired lungs that have a higher surface area than amphibians -can undergo periods of sustained nonbreathing
describe mammalian lungs -lobed elastic structures in the thoracic cavity
what are the conducting passageways of mammalian lungs primary,secondary and tertiary bronchioles
where does majority of gas exchange in mammalian lungs take place alveoli
how are the lungs held open in mammals cartilage and smooth muscle
describe the alveoli and how they are maintained within the body around 500 million leading to a high surface area- 70-80m square held open by surfactants- these reduce the surface tension and prevents the alveoli walls attracting each other
describe lung ventilation air moves along the pressure gradient lung pressure changes are controlled by thoracic cavity volume changes lungs move with the thoracic cavity due t the pleural membrane- these attach the lungs to the chest cavity
describe volume of exchange when inhaling and exhaling - around half a litre is exchanged (500ml) while 1200ml remain in the lungs maintained and never exchanged - still high efficiency due to the Hugh surface area
describe bird lungs smaller than mammals stiff fixed to the ribcage more efficient that human lungs
how are bird lungs more efficient that human lungs associated with a system of ar sacs that are an extension of the lungs - number of sacs species dependent -usually around 4/5 on each side this is a paired lung system
compare mammalian and bird lungs mammals- lungs are expandable and ventilated by change in lung volume blind ending bags with tidal flow fresh and stale air mixing large residual volume gas exchange and ventilation occur at the same site large gas exchange surface area higher respiratory frequencies birds - lungs are stiff and ventilated by compression of air sacs flow through system unidirectional cross current blood flow = efficient extraction fresh air continuously moves through the lungs even during exhale gas exchange and ventilation at different sites larger relative surface area lower respiratory frequency (1/3 of mammals)
relate necessity to bird lung structure -high metabolic demands related to flight allows bird to fly at high altitudes
describe gills of all jawless, cartilaginous and bony fish unidirectional (tidally in lampreys) counter current blood flow
why do amphibians display the greatest diversity in respiratory structures metamorphic stages external and internal gills as larvae and simple/comples lung systems as adults -rely on cutaneous respiration party or whole e.g. lungless salamanders
describe the difference between buccal pump use in fish and amniote respiratory system mouth muscles in the fish axial muscles used in amniotes meaning that the mouth is free for other uses even during respiration