EPR Week 2

Alexandru Sandor
Flashcards by Alexandru Sandor, updated about 2 months ago
Alexandru Sandor
Created by Alexandru Sandor about 2 months ago


- Lernzettel EPR Week 2

Resource summary

Question Answer
What does the "Wheel of Science" contain ? 1. RQ 2. Theory 3. Hypothesis 4. Operationalisation 5. Data collection 6. Data Analysis
Why is a good research design so important ? 1. Poor design = poor research 2. Vital in order to understand empirical research 3. Vital for term papers, theses & exams
What are the criteria of a good research question ? 1. clear & succinct 2. important in the real world 3. should contribute to existing research 4. shouldn't bee too broad
What kind of questions should you ask in your RQ ? - open endend "how" & "why" questions about your general topic => consider the "why" of your topic !
What 5 questions should you ask to evaluate your RQ ? Is your RQ: 1. clear 2. focused 3. complex 4. too broad 5. too complex
What is the second step of the Research Design ? The Literature review !
Why do you conduct a literature review ? - to review previours work on your topic => sharpen your RQ - find a new puzzle: something that has not been investigated yet - develop explanations for observed phenomena - identify data sources that others have used
What shoud be sure regarding the RQ ? That your RQ has not been answered !
How many literature should you use ? - depends on the available ressources - most relevant literature
What should you keep in mind when conducting a literature review ? - use electronic databases e.g JSTOR - learn the keywords of your topic - manage your citations (Citavi, Zotero)
What is the third step of your Research design ? Theory
Why do we need theories ? 1. expand knowledge 2. improve existing theories 3. simplify 4. generalise 5. predict 6. highlight exceptions
What is the criteria for a useful theory ? - testable - logically consistent - communicable (understandable) - general - persimonious (sparsam)
What are the two types of theory building? 1. Induction 2. Deduction
What are the key points of building a theory through Induction ? - broad generalizations - conclusions are drawn frin the data => first data then observation - go from the specific to the general => then: infer an explanation/ theory
What is the "Bottom up" approach? - happens at Induction Steps: 1. Observe 2. Detect patterns 3. Formulate hypotheses 4. Develop theory as conclusion
What kind of research is the "Bottom up" approach and how does it look like ? - more qualitative research 1. Start with data 2. infer conclusions from the data 3. Tend to do qualitative research
What are the key points for building a theory through Deduction ? - start with a general statement/ hypotheses => explain possibilities to reach a specific/ logical conclusion
How does the procedure for a Deduction look like ? - proceed from theory => observation
What are the steps of the "Top Down" approach ? 1. Develop theory 2. Reduce to testable hypotheses 3. Make observations 4. Evaluate hypotheses
From what to what moves deduction ? - moves from idea => observation - more general => more specific
What kind of research is deduction and how does the approach look like ? - more quantiative 1. Start with a theory 2. Confirm a hypothesis 3. Tend to make quantiative research
What are the key points of interpretive theories as an alternative to deduction & induction ? - reject the scientific method - Reject that there is a "real world" - can interpret but NOT explain the real world - Narratives instead of theories to explain
What is the fourth step of the research design ? Hypothesis !
What is a "Hypothesis" ? - statement which we believe to be true - testable statements linked to our RQ
What happens when a hypothesis has been verified as "true" ? It becomes a theory !
What is a good hypothesis ? - educated guess/ prediction of what will happen - proposes relationship between variables - relates on a dependent & independent variable
By what is the effect of the dependent variable determined ? By what happens what happens when you infleunce the independent variable !
As what sentence is a good hypothesis written & why ? As an "if"- statement, in order to establish cause & effect on the variables
What is the question for the dependent variable ? How does it change when you influence the independent variable ?
What happens to the independent variable, when you change/ influence it ? The dependent variable will respond !
Give through an experiment an example for the dependent and independent variable ! Can be anything !
What are questions, you should answer after writing a hypothesis (to evaluate it) ? 1. Does it rely on IV & DV => can you indentify them ? 2. Can you test the hypothesis ? => can you design an experiment to establish the validity of the hypothesis ? 3. Is there a simplier/ more precise way to express the hypothesis ?
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