Geography Restless Earth

Finn Treadaway
Flashcards by Finn Treadaway, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Finn Treadaway
Created by Finn Treadaway almost 5 years ago


GCSE Geography Flashcards on Geography Restless Earth , created by Finn Treadaway on 02/20/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Lithosphere Uppermost layer of the earth; the crust and rock found on the surface
Asthenosphere Molten, upper part of the mantle which helps drive the tectonic plates
Core 5000 degree heat generated by radioactivity. Convection currents in mantle distribute heat. Solid inner and liquid outer core create magnetism
Pangea Original super-continent, all land masses together 250 million years ago
Plate Tectonics Movement of earths crust in sections (plates) by the mantle below.
Mantle Semi-solid with convection currents heated by the core beneath
Plate boundary The place where two plates touch (Constructive, Destructive etc)
Constructive/Divergent Plate boundary Where plates move apart allowing magma to rise to the surface creating new crust. Volcanoes and earthquakes occur here. e.g. Iceland
Conservative/Transform Plate boundary Where two plates slide past each other either in opposite direction or same direction but at different speeds. Has earthquakes but not volcanoes e.g. San Andreas fault in Cali
Destructive/ Convergent plate boundary Where an oceanic plate subducts beneath beneath a less dense continental plate. Fold mountains, ocean trenches, island arcs, both volcanoes and earthquakes e.g. Japan
Collision Plate boundary A type of destructive plate boundary where two continental plate boundaries collide and push up to form mountain ranges e.g the Himalayas
Earthquake The result of a build up of stress within the earths crust and a sudden release of energy that creates seismic waves.
Focus The location within the crust at which the earthquake occurs
Epicentre The point of worst effect on the earths surface directly above the focus
Magnitude The power and size of an earthquake or volcanic eruption
Richter scale Measures the strength of an earthquake, recorded using a seismometer.
Mercalli Scale Visual description of the damage an earthquake causes (1-12 scale)
Fore / Aftershock Earth tremors arriving before / after a major earthquake
Base isolator Shock absorbing foundations making buildings earthquake resistant.
Hot spot Volcano, normally in the middle of a plate above a mantle plume. E.g. Hawaii.
Shield volcano Gentle slopes, runny fast flowing lava, rarely dangerous. E.g. Hawaii.
Basalt Very runny lava from volcanoes on constructive margins & hot spots.
Composite cone Volcano with steep slopes, ash and lava flows, explosive.
Pyroclastic flow Glowing cloud of hot ash and gas sweeping down a volcano at 200km/h.
Lahars Rain triggered volcanic ash mudslides on steep slopes. Sets like concrete.
VEI Volcanic Explosivity Index – measure of an eruption’s energy.
International aid Countries offer expertise, resources & equipment to deal with disasters.
Continental Crust Relatively light but thick crust. It is never created or destroyed so is much older than oceanic crust
Oceanic Crust Dense but relatively thin crust, created at constructive margins and destroyed at destructive margins, so younger than continental crust.
Convection Current Currents generated by heat from the core – the mechanism for movement of the plates.
Magnetosphere Protects us from harmful radiation. Exists because of movement in the core.
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