Surgery 1845 - 1918

Bill O'Donnell
Flashcards by Bill O'Donnell, updated more than 1 year ago
Bill O'Donnell
Created by Bill O'Donnell about 6 years ago
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Description

Key knowledge needed for the surgery skills paper

Resource summary

Question Answer
3 problems facing surgeons in 1845 Pain, infection and blood loss
what is an anaesthetic? Something that kills pain
What is an antiseptic Something that kills infection
Discovered by James Simpson Chloroform
3 reasons why chloroform was opposed Took time, moral opposition, religious opposition
Who helped chloroform be accepted Queen Victoria
Main skill of surgeons pre 1845 Speed
Problem with using ether as a anaesthetic irritated the lungs
Reason why Hannah Greener died Over dose of chloroform
What was the Black period period following the introduction of chloroform which led to longer and more complicated surgery
The person who came up with Germ theory Louis pasteur
First surgeon to highlight the need for cleanliness Ignaz Semmelweiss
He introduce antiseptic surgery Joseph Lister
What Lister used as an antiseptic Carbolic spray
Key reason why Lister's methods did not always work Instructions were not always followed carefully.
Reasons for opposition to carbolic spray took time, cracked skin, irritated lungs, failed to work due to instructions not being followed, Germ theory was not accepted by many surgeons
Main reason why blood transfusions failed No knowledge of blood groups
What does Aseptic surgery involve Germ free
What does germ free surgery involve From 1887 instruments were steam sterilised and theatres were rigorously cleaned. 1894 sterilised rubber gloves were worn
karl Landsteiner discovered blood groups in 1901
Wilhelm Rontgen invented Xray 1895
problems caused by World War 1 Dirty conditions led to infection 14,000 doctors were taken away from normal work
Used to find shrapnel wounds Xray
Consequence of millions of wounded new methods for repairing broken bones and skin grafting, which would lead to plastic surgery
Used to improve blood transfusions Sodium citrate
What makes a source useful relevance and reliability
reliability strengths Author known, purpose known, content is balanced, Well researched e.g. historian
reliability weaknesses Author not known Biased mainly opinion Not supported by own knowledge or other sources
Cross reference Compare different sources point out similarities and differences
Inference Something you can work out from a source and support from the details of the source
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