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3215 Flashcards on Untitled_2, created by uconn.huskies.19 on 09/17/2013.

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Question Answer
what is research? systemic inquiry using methods to solve problems or answer questions - ultimate goal is to gain knowledge that would be useful for many people
evidence based practice is used for what? is the use of the best evidence in making patient care decisions. Such evidence typically comes from research conducted by nurses and other health care professional
nursing research Systematic inquiry to develop knowledge about issues of importance to the nursing profession
The American Nurses Credentialing Center has developed a magnet recognition program to recognize health care organizations that provide high-quality nursing care
continuum of participation from producers of research to skilled consumers of research findings who use research evidence in their practice
Florence nightingale 1850s analyses of factors affecting mortality during the crimean war. she focused on - hygiene - amputation procedures - environment (temp & air flow) - etc.
first journal on research (nursing research) emerged, 1950s there was an increase of advance practicing nurses and research funding
national center for nursing research established at NIH, 1986 Importance in the US was the establishment in 1896 of the National Center for Nursing Research (NCNR) at the National Institute of health. The purpose of NCNR was to promote and financially support research projects and training related to patient care.
national institute of nursing research (NINR) established, 1993 Help put nursing research more into the mainstream of research activities enjoyed by other health disciplines
future direction for research - Heightened focus on evidence-based practice - Use of multiple confirmatory strategies (e.g., replication [repeating] and multisite studies - Greater stress on systematic reviews Systematic reviews: rigorously integrate research information on topic so that conclusions about the state of evidence can be reached - Expanded local research in health care settings (e.g., as part of Magnet process) - More multidisciplinary collaboration - Expanded dissemination of research findings - Greater focus on cultural issues and health disparities
NINR’s 2010 budget request identified three broad areas of research emphasis - Promoting health and - preventing diseases Symptom management, self-management, and caregiving - End-of-life research
sources of evidence for nursing - tradition - authority - clinical experience - logical reasoning - assembled information - disciplined research
source of evidence: tradition may undermine effective problem solving
sources of evidence: authority a person with specialized expertise. limitations include: they are not infallible because knowledge may be base off personal experience and no evidence based
source of evidence: clinical experience - trail and error plays a role - intuition plays a role - clinical experience is a functional source of knowledge; may be biased and narrow - trial and error involves trying successively until a solution to a problem is found; practical but methods can be haphazard and unusual
deductive reasoning Deductive reasoning is a basic form of valid reasoning. Deductive reasoning, or deduction, starts out with a general statement, or hypothesis, and examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion. The scientific method uses deduction to test hypotheses and theories.
inductive reasoning inductive reasoning is the opposite of deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning makes broad generalizations from specific observations. Even if all of the premises are true in a statement, inductive reasoning allows for the conclusion to be false. Here’s an example: "Harold is a grandfather. Harold is bald. Therefore, all grandfathers are bald."
sources of evidence: assembled information some information can be used in practice, but provide no mechanism to actually guide improvement
source of evidence: disciplined research considered best method of acquiring reliable knowledge
paradigm a world view a general perspective on the complexities of the real word, with certain assumptions about reality
key paradigms for nursing research - positivist paradigm - naturalistic paradigm
Positivist paradigm - Dominated nursing research - Is a reflection of a boarder cultural movement (modernism) that emphasizes rational and the scientific - Measurable and one reality
naturalistic paradigm - Reality is not a fixed entity but rather a construction of the people participating in the research; reality exist within a context, and many constructions are possible - Assumes that knowledge is maximized when the distance between the inquirer and participants in the study is minimized - Many different realities because everyone has different experiences
positivist assumption - Reality exists. [there is a reality that can be studied and known] - There is a real world driven by natural causes. - Believers assume that nature is ordered and regular, and that reality exists independent of human observation - the inquirer is dependent from those being studied
naturalist assumption - reality s multiple and subjective, constructed by individuals - the inquirer interacts with those being studied; findings reflect the interaction
roles and values of positivist assumption - values are held in check; objectivity is sought - their approach involves the use of orderly, disciplined procedures with tight controls over the research situation
roles and values of naturalist assumption subjectivity and values are inevitable, desirable
post-positivist still believe in reality and seek to understand it, but they recognize they impossibility of total objectivity
research methods the techniques used to structure a study and to gather, analyse, and interpret information. this includes - quantitative research - qualitative research
Quantitative research most often allied with the positivist tradition - Typically move in systematic [progress through a series of steps] fashion from the definition of a problem to the solution of the problem - Gather empirical evidence - - Evidence that is rooted in objective reality and gathered directly or indirectly through the sense rather than through personal beliefs or hunches - Important limitations - - They must attach numerical values that express quantity - - Complexities tend to be controlled and, if possible, eliminated rather than studied directly – this narrow focus can sometimes obscure insights - - Has been accused of a narrowness and inflexibility of vision that does not capture the full breath of human experience
qualitative research most often allied with the naturalist tradition - Emphasize the inherent complexity of humans, their ability to shape and create their own experiences - Heavily focused on understanding human experience as it is lived - Believe that traditional scientific method is reductionist: it reduces human experience to only a few concepts under investigation, and those concepts are defined in advance by the researcher rather than emerging from the experiences of those under study
key points about positivist - fixed design - discrete, specific concepts - deductive processes - control over context - verification of hunches - quantitative information - seeks generalizations
key points about naturalist - flexible design - holistic - inductive processes - context-bound - emerging interpretation - qualitative information - seeks patterns
purposes of nursing research - Treatment, Therapy, Intervention  - Diagnosis, Assessment  - Prognosis  - Harm and Etiology - Meaning, Process
Prognosis [looks at the outcomes, what are we expecting to be the outcomes?] - These studies provide valuable information for guiding patients to make beneficial lifestyle choices or to be vigilant for key symptoms
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