Ekua Aning
Flashcards by Ekua Aning, updated more than 1 year ago
Ekua Aning
Created by Ekua Aning over 5 years ago


Flashcards on CLASSICS- POMPEII , created by Ekua Aning on 03/08/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Why did Pompeii have a good defensive position? Pompeii was built on a ridge of lava. The south edge dropped sharply, creating a good defensive position
Four reasons why the river Sarno was so important for Pompeii? Could accommodate large ships Pompeii could control the mouth of the river and the trade that came up and down the river Provided the original water supply for the locals Helped to irrigate the surrounding arable land
What shows the fertility of the volcanic soil? Made for rich farmland, giving 3-4 crops a year Growth of many villages of the vicinity of the town
List the crops from Vesuvius Vines- for wine Olive trees- for oil (bathing, cooking, lighting)
List the crops from the plain Wheat and barley (for bread) Vegetables- beans, chickpeas, cabbage
Why was the coast also important for Pompeii? Salt came from salt pans on the coast There was plentiful fish- was caught, allowed to ferment and used to create garum- a fish sauce.
When did the earthquake hit Pompeii? modern and roman date Modern- 4th Feb 62 CE Roman- Nones of February
Five things Suetonius said about the damage in Campania? Caused great destruction Many sheep were killed, statues cracked and some people left extremely shocked- driven made with fright Naples lost many private dwellings, but no public buildings Lasted for several days The structures that were left were shaky
What happened in 64 AD? Naples was hit by an Earthquake whilst emperor Nero was on stage
What further evidence of the earthquake was found by excavators? There was at least two serious earthquakes and small scale tremors The buildings were damaged and the water supply was disrupted- the disruption and chaos would have been significant
What were the effects of the eruption on the: sea land sky sea- sucked into itself sea bed was exposed, many sea creatures were stranded on the dry sand land- ash spread all across the land sky- made the sky dark
What did Pliny compare the darkness to and what did the darkness make people do? Compared it to as if the lamps had been put out in a closed room Made many people panic. Could her the shreiks of women, wailing of infants and the shouting of men Many prayed for death, besought the aid of the gods or imagined that there was no gods left and that it was the end of the world
Who was Pliny writing to? Cornelius Tacitus, writer and historian
What was his Uncle's position and which people did he try to help? Was to help as many people as possible t escape Tried to help terrified and shocked people to calm them down
24th August- Early afternoon Vesuvius erupts suddenly with great force A cloud of volcanic material soar high above the mountain Within 30 mins the cloud rises 14km above Vesuvius Ash drifts over Pompeii
24th- Late Afternoon Vesuvius spews it contents higher and higher Volcanic material cools then hails down on Pompeii Many residents flee while some seek shelter or stay behind to guard their property Volcanic debris begins to clog the River Sarno and the port making them impassable to ships Seismic shockwaves shake the area
24th- Early night-time Chunks of pumice, as big as 50cm, plummet from the cloud Streets and roads are buried deep under pumice, lapilli and ash The roofs from buildings begin to collapse under the weight The cloud now rises 25km above Vesuvius, blocking out the sun Turns dark, with lightning flashes
25th- Early morning Scalding mudflows of volcanic debris mixed with steam spill from the volcano and down the slopes The debris rises as high as the upper story buildings- bursts through the windows, doors and roofs, trapping and suffocating those within
25th- Morning The third pyroclastic surge, the strongest yet, reaches Pompeii from the north, but is held back by the town's wall
What was the first sign of the eruption, spotted by Pliny's mother? A cloud of unusual size and appearance
What things prevented Pliny the elder to sail in to save Rectina? Ashes, blackened stones and pumice flew down The shore was blocked by mountain debris
What were the ways in which people died? Heart attacks Earthquakes Suffocated by hot gases and ash Collapsing buildings Being trampled to death by panicking mobs Being hit by falling materials
Who could afford to live in domus'? Wealthy families
What did a domus look like from the outside? High walls Few openings Designed to shut out noise and heat and to provide as much privacy as possible
Which two rooms formed the centre's of activity in the domus? The Atrium- main hall The Peristylium- garden
What rooms were around the atrium? Cabicula- Bedrooms Tablinum- The study Triclinium- Dining room Peristylium- Garden
Describe the peristylium b)What would it be used for? Garden surrounded by a colonnade of pillars- Elaborately decorated Fish-pond, surrounded by flowers, shrubs and marble or bronze statues Clustered around it were the storage rooms, kitchens, lavatory, slaves quarters and summer dinning room Used to relax or enjoy the sunshine or shade in private
According to Vitruvius, what would the areas of the domus be like? Areas would be divided into family and visitor spaces Visitors had access to courtyard, peristyle, atrium Family and friends had access to bedrooms, dining room and bath suite
Who owned the house of the Vetti? Two wealthy brothers Aulus Vettius Conviva Aulus Vettius Restitutus
What was the house a good example of? Property owned by the commercial middle class
Describe the features of the house of Vetti Two atria Master rooms clustered around the main atrium and the peristylium No tablinum Stairs to an upper floor Kitchen
What did the entrance hall contain? A fresco of Priapus weighing his phallus Was a fertility symbol and good luck sign designed to keep bad luck away from the house
Why was there no tablinum? And what could the visitor see because there was no tablinum? Perhaps being freedmen they did not have clients to call into the tablinum for a private chat
What did the atrium have? Compluvium- Lets in rain and sunlight Impluvium- Collects the rainwater-key source of water for the family
What were on either side of the atrium? Two strongboxes in which owners would have kept their valuable possessions Made from wood, fitted with iron and brass studs
What would the peristylium look like? Yellow walls with big black squares inside boarders Two bronze fountains in the form of 'a Cupid holding a goose'- A get of water would have come out of the goose's mouth Symmetrical and contained marble basins and statuettes
What famous painting may have been in the dining room? The frieze of Cupids 9 sections showing the Cupids carrying out activities, some of which are sporting , some to do with trade, and some to do with the worship of Bacchus (god of wine)
What other wall decorations were in the house of the Vetti? The punishment of Ixion Hercules kills snakes sent by Hera to kill him
List the unusual features in the house of the Vetti Has 2 atria main one to peristyle- master's room of it 2nd one with slaves room and kitchen of it Lararium in second atrium Partial second story No tablinium Room with Cupids frieze Secluded rooms off the peristyle used to be called 'women's quarters' Stables
Who built the house of the Faun? When? By an old Oscan family Dates back from the 2nd Century BC
What things made the house of Faun look impressive? Was the largest, most impressive private residence in Pompeii The size was equivalent to a royal palace in Greece (3000sqm) Expensive mosaics were scattered throughout the house, designed to show the educated taste of the owner and their love for Greek culture
What did the house of Faun look like from the outside? Occupied a whole insula (city block) High, elaborate door frames
List 5 main parts of the house Axial Tuscan atrium which is the first main room a visitor enters Tetrastyle atrium off to the right Service rooms and corridors Smaller Ionic peristyle- reached via the tablinum from the Tuscan atrium Very large Doric peristyle- at the back of the building
List 3 things about the main entrance Bears the Latin greeting 'Have' in the form of a mosaic made from coloured limestone Doorway (posticum) has two false pillars with an architrave above Entrance floor inside is decorated with a mosaic of tragic masks with a garland
List some features of the Tuscan atrium Did not have columns supporting the roof Was the largest atrium discovered in Pompeii The surrounding rooms were a series of bedrooms (cabicula) and the tablinum
What was the 'dancing faun' ? Bronze statue, situated in the impluvium (pool)
2 things about the small garden? Surrounded by a peristyle of 28 Ionic columns Contains the fountain
How can a house like this tell us much about the taste of the super-rich in Roman times? Owner was set out to impress and provide a sense of grandeur The owner was a philhellene (Greek-lover)
How many dining rooms were there? What does it tell us about the owners? 4 dining rooms for spring and autumn Tells us that the owners are rich and grand
How did the tetrastyle atrium differ from the Tuscan atrium? It was supported by 4 columns
What differences do you notice between a typical Pompeian house and your own house? Only 1 storey (mostly) Lavishly decorated- statues, fountains, fresco More open Toilet in the kitchen Undecorated bedrooms
Give the Roman names for these rooms Main hall Garden Bedroom Study Dining room Living room Kitchen Entrance hall Atrium Peristylium Cabiculum Tablinum Triclinium Culina Fauces
What was the Impluvium Compluvium Ianua? Im- Pool. Collects rainwater. In the iddle of the atrium C- Lets in rain water and sunlight In- The door
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