Relationships

Angel Nicole
Flashcards by Angel Nicole , updated more than 1 year ago
Angel Nicole
Created by Angel Nicole about 6 years ago
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A Levels Psychology Flashcards on Relationships , created by Angel Nicole on 04/11/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Culture Relationships Discuss Research into the influence of culture on romantic relationships ? Studies Epstein > cultures with reduced mobility worked well (lower divorce) Xiahhe & Whyte > women with freedom of choice were happier (marital stability) Myers et al > no difference in maritial satisfaction when compared to indian arranged marriages
GRENADE G > Fails to consider that men also have freedom of choice in Western culture R > Simplistic, doesn't explore complexity of Romantic Relationships E> Real life application - not replicable N> Focuses more on Nurture & beliefs A> Studies only carried out on humans D > Deterministic - assumes couples in non-voluntary marriages can control marital satisfaction in a marriage they had no say in E > American culture used to generalise Western cultures Real life example Just because people in Western Cultures get a choice who they marry doesn't mean it will last - constant references to celebrities getting divorced and broken marriages on TV.
Childhood & Adolescence Discuss the influence of childhood and/or adolescent experiences on adult relationships ? Studies/Theories Temperament hypothesis - determined by personality factors, suggests dating improves relationships and time of dating Internal Working Model- Shaver et al > three systems; attachment (Bolwby) caregiving, and sexuality. Fraley - link between attachement type and later attachement ( meta - analysis - correlation =0.1-0.5 )
GRENADE G> Equal focus on both Male and Female R> Cognitive approach - fails to consider other approaches E> Real life studies- more internal validity N> Focus greater on Nurture A> All studies carried out on humans D> Deterministic fails to explain those who have bad relationships in their childhood but go on to have successful marriages E> Many studies carried out on Western Cultures, cannot be generalised to Non Western Real Life Examples Explains why some women are in domestic and violent relationships because they were abused as children and therefore abuse has become a conditioned response.
Formation Outline and evaluate one theory of the formation of romantic relationships Theories/ Studies Filter Model - Attractiveness, Similarity, Personality - filter out desirables Reward/Need Satisfaction > direct reinforcement (operant conditioning) rewarding stimuli- desirable outcome Classical Conditioning > e.g. compliments - positive feelings should outweigh negative (Griffitt & Guay; Ratings - higher when rewarded) Cate et al > 337 Participants assess Rewards/ Needs in current relationship - rewards important. ( Sheddon et al - Need satisfaction - Facebook = connectedness
GRENADE G> Equal focus on both sexes R> cognitive approach - fails to consider alternative E> Some lab experiments = demand characteristics N > Fails to consider nurture - e.g. parental influence/ peers A > All human studies D> Fails to consider free will; some individuals may choose a persons needs over rewards E> doesn't account for other cultures, some cultures more focused on needs Real Life Example Friends with benefits - Form relationships not necessarily out of love but often on the basis of the rewards that they receive
Breakdown Discuss research into the breakdown of romantic relationships Studies Rollie & Duck > 6 steps; Dissatisfaction, Intra Psychic Process (faults), Dyadic process (confront),Social process, Grave dressing, Resurrection Duck > 3 reasons; Affair, Lack of skill & stimulation Tashiro & Frazier > surveyed students - reported emotional distress/personal growth (grave dressing/ resurrection) Boekhout et al > undergrads rate reasons (unfaithfulness, boredom , lack of attention)
GRENADE G > ignores gender differences - women stress unhappiness, men withhold sex, women want to stay friends - men don't R> model stresses the importance of communication E > Survey/Ratings - some participants may not be honest - lacks internal validity N> focuses on nurture A> Studies carried out on humans D> Free will - some may choose to fix problems - CCET - Couples Coping Enhancement Training E> Focus greater on Western Real Life Example People who are recently divorced but are able to engage in new relationships - Grave dressing process and Resurrection
Sexual Selection/ Human Reproductive Behaviour Discuss the relationship between sexual selection and human reproductive behaviour Studies/ Theories Intra sexual/ Intersexual > Intra - evolutionary - compete Inter - innate preferences - characteristics Buss >37 cultures, 10,000 couples ( Women seek finance while men seek attractiveness Clarke & Hatfield> 75% males willing to have sex with attractive stranger Miller et al > Women dancers earned twice as much tip when fertile
GRENADE G> Woman equally have one night stands R> considers elements of the evolutionary approach E> larger samples sizes improve validity, harder to control extraneous variables N> considers aspects of both Nature and Nurture but focus is greater on Nurture A> All human studies - ecological validity D> Fails to consider free will - do not base relationship on attractiveness/finance E > High in population validity - 37 cultures Real Life Example Explains friends with benefits Does not account for men who choose to refrain from sex Explains why often older men are with younger women - vise versa
Maintenance Outline and evaluate one theory of the maintenance of Romantic Relationships Studies/ Theories Thibaut & Kelley = Social Exchange Theory > expectation of 'profit' - rewards greater than costs (Comparison Level- past and alternative relationships) Walster et al = Equity Theory > people strive to achieve fairness in relationship (maritial satisfaction) Simpson et al > if already in a committed relationship- judge new alternatives as less profitble (Women in abusive relationships) Clark & Mills > disagrees that relationship based on economics - Communal > respond to needs of partner - keep track of rewards/costs
GRENADE G> men also in abusive relationships R> Simplistic does not consider more complex factors e.g religion, race, counseling E> lab experiments - demand characteristics - lacks validity N> does not take into account evolution or biological therefore focus is on nurture A> All studies carried out on humans D> Deterministic - ignores social aspects E> Focus on Western - cannot be generalised to Non - Western Real Life Example Women in abusive relationships e.g. In Hollyoaks - Maxine stays with Partrick not only out of fears but because of him providing for her = rewards outweigh the costs
Parental Investment Discuss sex differences in parental investment Studies Buss et al > US students = males more concerned about sexual infidelity whereas females more concerned about emotional infidelity Symons > investment for females higher than investment for males - maternal & paternal investment Anderson > fathers & stepfathers - invest and spent time with child and do not discriminate
GRENADE G> Single fathers R> Reductionist - ignore personal and social conditions that determine investment E> lab experiment - demand characteristics and extraneous variables - lacks external validity N> Fails to consider nurture - e.g. peer influence A> Human studies used - high in external validity D> Deterministic - does not offer alternative explanations E> US studieas - lacks generalization Real Life Examples Single Fathers who invest in their child without a mother around Fathers who choose not to invest in their child despite it having his genes
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