2.3 Biology (Higher) - Metabolism and Survival

kerryrandfield
Flashcards by kerryrandfield, updated more than 1 year ago
kerryrandfield
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higher Biology (UNIT 2 - Metabolism and Survival) Flashcards on 2.3 Biology (Higher) - Metabolism and Survival, created by kerryrandfield on 05/01/2015.

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Question Answer
THREE DOMAINS OF LIFE > bacteria > archaea > eukaryotes
WHY MICROORGANISMS ARE USEFUL FOR RESEARCH AND INDUSTRY > easily cultivated > reproduce and grow quickly > food substrate is often cheap > produce many different useful products > metabolism is easily manipulated
SELECTIVE MEDIUM a medium designed to suit the growth requirements of a specific microorganism
GENERATION TIME / DOUBLING TIME time between cell divisions / time for population to double
LAG PHASE > no (or very little) increase in cell number > cells are adjusting to the new medium > synthesising new enzymes to break down new substrates
LOG / EXPONENTIAL PHASE cells divide and numbers increase exponentially enzymes are being induced to break down substrate
STATIONARY PHASE growth rate slows death rate = birth rate microbes run out of nutrient/space and toxic metabolites build up
DEATH PHASE death rate > birth rate toxic waste products build up
PRIMARY METABOLISM organisms break down substrates to produce metabolites essential for growth, development, reproduction
SECONDARY METABOLISM breaking down substrate to produce metabolites giving an ecological advantage to microbe
DESIRED CHARACTERISTICS OF A STRAIN > genetic stability > ability to grow on low cost nutrients > ability to vastly overproduce target compound > ability to allow easy harvesting of the product
MUTAGENESIS the creation of mutations
GENES THAT CAN BE INTRODUCED TO MICROORGANISMS > amplify specific steps to increase yield of target compound > causes cell to secrete product (easily recovered) > makes them unable to survive in external environment (safety mechanism)
VECTOR transfers DNA from genome of one organism to that of another (often a plasmid)
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