Education- Key Terms

Becky Walker
Flashcards by Becky Walker, updated more than 1 year ago
Becky Walker
Created by Becky Walker almost 6 years ago
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A level Sociology Flashcards on Education- Key Terms, created by Becky Walker on 05/14/2015.

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Question Answer
Who are the Bourgeoisie? Marxist term for the capitalist class, the owners of the means of production (factories, materials, land etc)
What is compensatory education? Goverment education policies that seek to tackle the problem of under-achievement by providing extra support and funding to families and schools in deprived areas, e.g. Operation Headstart.
What is a comprehensive system? A non-selective education system where all the children attend the same type of secondary school.
What is the correspondence principle? Bowles and Gintis' concept describing the way that the organisation and control of schools mirrors or 'corresponds' to the workplace in capitalist society.
What is the Cultural Capital? The knowledge, values, language, tastes and abilities that the middle class transmit to their children.
What is cultural deprivation? The theory that many working-class black children are inadequatly socialised and therefore lack the 'right' culture needed for educational success.
What is culture? All the things that are learnt by a group of people or society and transmitted through generations via socialisation.
What is a curriculum? Those things learnt or taught in educational institutions. The overt or official curriculum includes the subjects, courses etc offered, while the hidden curriculum includes all those things learnt without formally being taught and often acquired simply through the everyday workings of the school.
What is deferred gratification? Postponing immediate rewards or pleasures, generally with the aim of producing a greater reward at a greater date.
What is Feminism? A sociological perspective and political movementthat focuses on women's oppression and the struggle to end it.
What is Functionalism? A consensus perspective in sociology that sees society as based on shared values into which members are socialised. It sees society as like an organism, each part performing functions to maintain the system as a whole.
What is Gender? The social and cultural characteristics of men and women. Unlike sex differences, which are biological and inborn gender differences in behaviour are cultural in origin and learned through gender role socialisation.
What is Immediate Gratification? A prescence for immediatepleasure or reward, without regard for the longer-term consequences.
What is Interactionism? A sociological perspective that focuses on small-scale interactions between individuals and groups, rather than on the large-scale workings of society.
What is Labelling? The process of attatching a defenition or meaning to an individual or group; often a stereotype.
What is Marketisation? The policy of introducing market forces of supply and demand into areas run by the state, such as education and the NHS.
What is Marxism? A conflict perspective based on the ideas of Karl Marx that sees society as divided into two opposed classes, one of which exploits the labour of the other.
What is material deprivation? Poverty; a lack of basic necessities such as adequate diet, housing, clothing or the money to buy these things.
What is Meritocracy? An educational or social system where everyone where everyone has an equal opportunity to succeed and where individuals' rewards and status are achieved are achieved by their own effects rather than ascribed by their gender, class or ethnic group.
What is the myth of meritocracy? Functionalists argue that the generation that the education system is meritocratic, but Bowles and Gintis claim that meritocracy is an ideology legitimating inequality by falsely claiming that everyone has equal opportunity and that unequal rewards are the 'natural' result of unequal ability.
Who are the New Right? A conservative political perspective whose supporters believe in self-reliance and individual choice, rahter than dependant on the state.
What is new vocationalism? The idea that education should be primarily about meeting the needs of the economy, especially by equipping young people with trhe knowledge, skills, attitudes and values needed to prepare them for work.
What is the self-fulfilling prophecy? Where a prediction is made about a person or group comes true simply because it has been made.
What is social class? Social groupings or hierarchy based on differences in wealth, income or occupation.
What is a social policy? The action, plans and programmes of government bodies and agencies that aim to deal with a problem or achieve a goal.
What is socialisation? The process by which an individual learns or internalises the culture of a society. (Primary/Secondary socialisation)
What are speech codes? Patterns or ways of using language.
What is a stereotype? A simplified, one-sided and often negative image of a group or individual whichassumes that all members of that group share the same characteristics.
What is stratification? The division of society into a hierarchy of unequal groups.
What is streaming? Where children are separated into differnt ability groups or classes ('streams') and then each ability group is taught seperately from the others for all subjects; the opposite of mixed ability teaching.
What is a subculture? A group of people within society who share norms, values, beliefs and attitudes that are in some ways different from or opposed to the mainstream culture.
What is the tripartite system? The system of secondary education based on three types of school. The 11+ exam was used to identify pupils' aptitudes and abilities.
What does vocational mean? Connected to a career. Vocational education and training transmits knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to persue particular careers.
What is the welfare state? Where the government or state takes responsibility for people's well being, especially their basic minimum needs.
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