AS Enlgish Language exam; Power and extra terminology.

Carly Dyball
Flashcards by Carly Dyball, updated more than 1 year ago
Carly Dyball
Created by Carly Dyball over 5 years ago


A Levels English Language (Power and Language ) Flashcards on AS Enlgish Language exam; Power and extra terminology., created by Carly Dyball on 06/01/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is mode? The format in which the communication is presented, be it writing, speech or a mix of the two.
What is TRIPE? TRIPE helps us to remember the different purposes a text can have; Transactional - Emphasis on getting something done Referential - To provide information Interactional - emphasis on social relationship between speakers Phatic - 'Small talk' Expressive - to express the speaker's feelings
Roman Jakobson also proposed that text can have another two types of purpose. What were these? Metalingual - the communication talks about language itself Poetic - related to the form of the message; the message is intended to catch the eye/ear; have an artistic appeal.
What is J L Austin's Speech Act Theory? The idea that we are not just saying things but doing things; that words perform actions.
What is the oppositional view? That writing and speech are binary opposites. This, however, is often not the case and it is better to think of the mode of language to be a part of a continuum. There are also prototypes and multimodality to consider.
What is meant by saying that language is synchronous/asynchronous? Synchronous: Happens in real time with participants usually present. Time bound, dynamic and transient. Usually co-present. Asynchronous: Delay between writing and reading. Space bound, static and permanent. Distant, rarely co-present.
What is lexis? Vocabulary.
What is semantics? Implied meaning behind words.
What is grammar? Structural relationships.
What is phonology? The sounds of English speech and writing.
What is pragmatics? Meaning derived from language through context; with what intention the communication was constructed and how it is received.
What is discourse? The structure of the text.
What is graphology? Textual design, signs and image.
Describe some lexical, grammatical and non-fluency features of spoken language. Lexis: Often less formal, colloquial expressions, slang, contractions. Phatic expressions, deictic expressions. Grammar: Interrupted constructions, disjointed constructions, incomplete constructions, non-standard grammar. Non-fluency: Fillers, filled pauses, unvoiced pauses, repetitions, false starts.
Describe Adjacency Pairs. Two part exchanges that follow a predictable pattern, i.e. a question followed by an answer.
Describe Three Part Exchanges. When the speaker's response generates a further utterance from the first speaker. The teacher-pupil interaction often has this pattern.
What can topic shifting show? Introducing new topics can be a sign of conversational dominance and may reflect a speaker's superior status. Correspondingly, unsuccessful attempts can show that the speaker occupies a subordinate position.
Describe what are: -Topic shifts -Topic shifters -Topic loops Topic shifts: A change of topic. Topic shifters: Words or phrases which indicate a topic shift. Topic loop: when the conversation returns to an earlier topic.
What are repairs? Resolving a problem that has arisen in a conversation. The simplest kind of repair occurs when speakers make a mistake and correct themselves. It could also be when a speaker is asked to repeat themselves.
What is meant by the term 'feedback'? Give some examples. -Verbal responses "absolutely" "I know" "really?" etc. -Back channeling noises -non-verbal responses
Give some examples ways in which the closing of a conversation is initiated. -Ritual exchange of farewells -usually proceeded by pre-closing signals -Summing up -Phatic expressions
What is Cooperation Theory of conversation? Grice's maxims; we interpret language on the assumption that the speaker is obeying the four maxims of: -Quality -Quantity -Relation -Manner
Who proposed Face and Politeness Theory? Brown and Levinson
What is Accommodation Theory? Howard Giles proposed that we change our language in order to accommodate our audience; -downward convergence (RP down to regional) -Upward convergence (Regional up to RP) -Mutual convergence (converge towards each other)
What are tricks of rhetoric? Linguistic methods used in order to gain an audience's approval. They can include; syntactical balancing, emotive lexis, rhetorical questions, list, cadence (list of 3) etc. etc.
What did Fairclough suggest about advertisment language? -Synthetic personalisation -creating an image of a text -Building the consumer
What are the different types of power? -Practical power -Knowledge and ideas power -positional power -personal power -influential power -instrumental power
What are marked expressions? Waiter-WaitRESS Actor-ActRESS Etc. etc.
What is semantic derogation? The sense of negative meaning or connotation that some lexical items have attached to them.
What is semantic deterioration? The process by which negative connotations become attached to lexical items.
What are some ways that language can be sexist? -Generic pronouns (take on the male form) -Lexical asymmetry -Insults (many female insults carry sexual connotations) -Patronizing usages -Feminite inanimate (using female pronouns for a ship/car - denotes male ownership) -Order of precedence (Dear sir/madam etc) -Use of 'Ms'
What are maternal, relational and mental verbs? Maternal: actions/events Relational: States of being Mental: perception, thought/speech.
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