Chapter 4: Theoretical Perspectives In Society

Bryan Gastulo
Flashcards by Bryan Gastulo, updated more than 1 year ago
Bryan Gastulo
Created by Bryan Gastulo almost 6 years ago
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Summary of Chapter 4

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-Three Sociological theories: -Functionalism -Symbolic Interactionism -Conflict Theory
-What are theories? -Theories are different explanations of social phenomena, provide a lens or a perspective to help us understand our social world.
-What was the Functionalism theory? -What were the two emphsis? -The functionalsim theory was the dominant theoretical perspective in sociology. It was based on how society functioned -The two emphasis were application of the scientific method and the use of an analogy between individual and society
-How do functionalists see the world? -Functionalists see the world as "objectively real" and have a positivistic view of society
-What techniques do functionalists use? -Functionalists use soical surveys and interviews
-What do functionalists think about religion? -Functionalists think that every society will have a religion, because those institutions have certain functions that contribute to the survival of the social system as a whole.
-What does the analogy between society and organisim focus on? -It focuses attention on the homeostatic nature of social systems. Social systems look for balance in nature
-How is society viewed? -Society is viewed as a system of interrealted parts.
-Who do functionalists often focus on? -They primarily focus on the individual.
-Symbolic Interactionism emphasizes what? -It empasizes the subjective meaning of human behavior, the social process and pragmatisim
-What do interactionists focus on? -They usually focus on the SUBJECTIVE aspects of social life
-What do interactionists base their perspectives on? -They base it on the image of human, rather than society
-How do interactionists see humans as? -They see humans as pragmatic actors, they adjust their behavior to the actions of others
-How do interactionists theorist see humans as? -They see them as active, creative participants who construct their social world
-What do the research of interactionists focus on? -They focus on observable face-to-face interactions
-What does negotiation do? -Negotiation among members of society creates temporary, socially contructed relations, which remain in constant flux.
-What does ethnomethodology do? -Raises the question of how people who are interacting with each other can create an illusion of a shared social order even though they are different
-How do interactionists study social interaction? -Through participant observation
-What is the materialistic view of history? -The most important determinant of social life is the work people are doing, especially hard work that earns money
-What is the famous end quote of Marx? -" It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but their social existence that determines their consciousness."
-What were the most important stages for Marx's argument? -Fedualism -Capitalism -Socialism
-What is the central institution of capitalits society? -Private property, it is controlled by a small minority of the population
-What are the two opposed classes? -Owners and workers
-How do owners exploit workers? -Owners are making profits by paying workers less than their work is worth
-What is feminism? -Focusing analysis on gender inequalites
-What is the rational choice theory? -Economic incentives affect the choices people make
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