Chemistry AS level 2015 topic 1

Talya Hambling
Flashcards by Talya Hambling, updated more than 1 year ago
Talya Hambling
Created by Talya Hambling over 4 years ago
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flashcards with brief points on chemistry topic 1 AS level for 2015/16 exams. hope it helps,more to come!

Resource summary

Question Answer
what is the relative mass of an electron 1/1840
Define 'atomic mass' weighted mass of one mole of an atom divided by a 12th of that of a carbon 12 atom
define 'isotopic mass' weighted mass of one mole of any isotope divided by mass of 12th of carbon 12 atom
define 'first ionisation energy' energy needed to remove one electron from outer shell of an atom, creating a 1+ ion
what influences ionisation energy number of protons, electron, shells and shielding
why is there an increase in ionisation energy across a period more electrons,more protons, so more shielding
why is there an energy decrease down a group more electron shells, so further from nucleus and requires more pull
what is afbuas principle electrons enter the lowest energy orbital available
what is the sub shell order 1s2s2p3s3p4s3d4p4d
how may electrons can each sub shell hold s-2 p-6 d-10
what are some uses for mass spectrometry forensic science, drug detection and carbon dating
stage one of mass spec ionisation - bombarded with fast moving electrons, knocking some off, creating 1+ ions
stage of mass spec acceleration - negative plates attract ions, pulling them toward the electromagnet
stage 3 of mass spec deflection - electromagnet field deflects ions around corner. [higher m/z - deflected less, needs more EM field strength]
stage 5 of mass spec detection - computer analysis substances
which molecules are diatonic HNOF-AT hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine,bromine,iodine, astatine
how to find abundance form height use ratio!
how to find RAM from abundance (percentage * mass) + (percentage * mass) --------------------------------------------------------- 100
what are the shapes of s and p orbitals s - sphere p - dung-bell
what is a mole amount of substance containing 6.02*10(23) number of atoms,molecules or ions.
what is metallic bonding electrostatic force between sea of negative electrons and positive meta ions.
what are the properties of metallic bonding dense, high melting/boiling points, conductive, malleable
what is ionic bonding strong electrostatic force where metal becomes positive, and non metal negative
what are the properties from ionic bonding solid, conduct in liquid and molten, strong, high melting/boiling points, soluble
what is covalent bonding when outer orbitals donate electrons to the shared centre
what are the properties from covalent bonding SIMPLE- low points wont dissolve wont conduct GIANT- high points wont dissolve some conduct
rules for solubles SOLUBLE: ammonium sodium potassium nitrate some chloride some sulphate
rules for insolubles INSOLUBLES: some lead some silver some carbonates some hydroxides
how to test for all the gasses carbon dioxide: limewater milky oxygen: relights splint hydrogen: splint goes 'pop' chlorine: pale green gas, turns litmus white ammonia: turns litmus paper blue
flame tests little children stand yelling potatoes potatoes come read bible of god lithium crimson sodium yellow potassium purple calcium red barium green
precipitates with sodium hydroxide aluminium - white magnesium- white copper - blue iron ll - dark green iron lll - rusty brown
precipitate with nitric acid and silver nitrate chloride - white bromide - cream iodide - yellow
with dilute acid hydrogen carbonate,and carbonates, produce bubbles of CO2
litmus paper with acid and alkali acid - red alkali - blue
what is combustion between fuel and oxygen COMPLETE: makes carbon dioxide + water INCOMPLETE: makes carbon monoxide
what is dissplacement element displaces lower reactive element - between metals and haogens
what is neutralisation: reaction between acid and base - forms a salt (hydroxide), and water
what is precipitation reaction that produces a precipitate (solid )
what is OILRIG oxidation is loss (of electrons) reduction is gain (of electrons)
adid + metal - salt +hydrogen
acid+ alkali - salt + water
acid + metal carbonate - salt + water + carbon dioxide
what is molar mass mass of one mole
what is molar volume volume occupied by one mole (24dm or 24000cm)
what are the 3 mole equations moles = ... mass/molar mass volume of gas/molar volume concentration*volume/1000 (only if not already in dm, and in cm instead)
steps to work out empirical formula 1. work out mass of each 2. do mass/RAM for each 3. put into ratio 4. scale down
steps to work out molecular formula 1. work out mass of each 2. do mass/RAM 3. multiply by RAM 4. scale down
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