Chapter 1 Homeostasis and Cell Physiology

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Physiology Lab at the University of Central Florida

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Homeostasis a dynamic constancy of the internal physiological environment
disease inability to maintain homeostasis
physiology the study of biological functions and process of the human body under normal conditions
Positive feedback mechanism amplifies changes in controlled variable caused by a stimulus
What are some example of positive feedback mechanism? blood coagulation child birth and inflammation
Positive feedback mechanism is less common in nature T or F True
the plasma membrane is __________ _________ which means is allows certain molecules to penetrate or permeate while excluding others selectively permeable
These type of molecules are non polar and readily diffuse across the lipid bilayer membrane without the aid of membrane proteins hydrophobic
Passive transport movement of a substance DOWN its concentration gradient and does NOT REQUIRE ENERGY
Active transport movement of a substance against its concentration gradient and requires energy or ATP
Passive transport if movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration T or F True
Simple diffusion passive transport of substance down their concentration gradient from high to low concentration
unassisted transport transport across a membrane occurring without the aid of a transport protein
Channel mediated facilitated diffusion passive transport of solute down its concentration gradient from high to low concentration
Channel proteins highly selective; allows only specific molecules or ions of a certain size across membrane
hydrophilic proteins in lipid bilayer aid in the transport of small polar molecules and ions across the membrane T or F True
Carrier Mediated Facilitated diffusion specialized proteins facilitate the transport of large hydrophilic molecules across the plasma membrane
What slows the transport of solute during carrier mediated facilitated diffusion? The proteins must go through a conformational change in order to facilitate the process
Carrier mediated facilitated diffusion n transports molecules from _____ to ____ concentration high to low
Primary Active Transport moves against concentration gradient from low to high concentration
Primary active transport involves the use of ATP
In this form of transport, molecules are pumped against a concentration gradient at the expense of energy primary active transport
Secondary active transport transport is driven by the energy stored in the concentration gradient of another molecule
In this form of transport the downhill movement of one molecule drives the uphill movement of another molecule secondary active transport
This form of transport involves the indirect us of ATP secondary active transport
What are the two categories of secondary active transport cotransport and counter transport
What is another name for countertransport antiport
what is another name for cotransport symport
what is cotransport ion and molecule move in the SAME direction across plasma membrane
what is counter transport ion and molecule move in OPPOSITE directions across plasma membrane
osmosis diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane that moves down its concentration gradient
tonicity the measure of the osmotic pressure gradient of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane
Isotonic solutions both solutions have the same concentration
hypotonic concentration of solute is lower than solution
hypertonic concentration of solute is higher than solution
crenation cells shrink in a hypertonic solution
lyse cells swell up and burst when placed in a hypotonic solution
There is an inversely proportional relationship between water distribution and adipose tissue deposition T or F True
extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid make up what percentage of the water distribution in the human body? 60 percent
extracellular fluid is made up of what two things? plasma and interstitial fluid
Intracellular fluid makes up what percentage of bodily fluids 40 percent
plasma makes up what percentage of the extracellular fluid? 4 percent
interstitial fluid makes up what percent of the extracellular fluid 16 percent
hyponatremia induced by excessive sweating and loss of salts and water by evaporation during exercise
symptoms of hyponatremia include headaches loss of appetite, muscle weakness and spams
Euvolemic hyponatremia water increase but the sodium content in body stays the same
hypervolemic hyponatremia sodium and water content in the body increase with water retention being greater
hypovolemic hyponatremia water and sodium are both lost in unequal levels; sodium is lost in a larger amount
if exercise induces excessive sweating thg than what type of electrolyte drink should be consumed something with high sodium concentration
If exercise involves a high performance like weight lifting that what type of electrolyte drinks should be consumed something with high sugar or carbohydrate concentration
Salt and carbohydrate concentration is determined by the rate at which water needs to be absorbed T or F true
What is HHS Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome
Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes; hyperglycemia causes shifts between hypertonic and hyper osmotic states which potentiates dehydration treated with vigorous rehydration
What are the four components in a feedback system regulated variable sensor/receptor integrating center effector
effector receives instructions from integrating center
integrating center control center; receives and processes info from the sensor; sends instructions to effector
sensor/receptor monitors the controlled variable for any deviations caused by stimulus; transmits info to integrating center
Regulated variable/controlled variable the specific factor being controlled by the system
plasmalemma double layered structure made of phospholipids cholesterol and protein molecules
Hydrophobic component of a cell fatty acid chain making up the inner cytoplasmic part of the cell
hydrophilic component of a cell polar phospholipids making up extracellular boundaries
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