Unit 2 Chapter 4 Vocabulary

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Heredity and Reproduction

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Question Answer
Heredity The Passing of traits from parents to offspring
Genetics the branch of biology dealing with heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics
Gene A segment of a DNA molecule that codes for a particular trait; Found at a specific location on a chormosome
Locus The location of a gene on a chromosome
Polyploid Having more than two sets of chromosomes; many plants are polyploids
Asexual Reproduction The production of offspring from a single parent; the genetic makeup of the offspring is identical to that of the parent
Sexual Reproduction The production of offspring from the fusion of two sex cells
Fragmentation A method of asexual reproduction in which a piece or body fragment of the parent organism develops into a mature individual
Mitosis The process by which a eukaryotic cell divides the genetic material in its nucleus
Interphase The portion of the cell cycle between mitosis divisions when the genetic material (in the form of chromatin) is duplicated
Chromatin The tangled strands of DNA and protein within a eukaryotic nucleus
Cytokinesis the process in which a eukaryotic cell divides its cytoplasm into two new daughter cells
Cloning The process of produciong
Sister Chromatid The identical copy of a single chromosome that remains attached to the original chromosome at the centromere
Cytokinesis The process in which a eukaryotic cell divides its cytoplasm into two new daughter cells
Cloning The process of producing one individual that is genetically identical to another, using a single cell or tissue
Biotechnology The use and modification of organisms for application in engineering, industry, and medicine
Genetically Modified Organism An organism in which the genetic material has been altered using genetic engineered techniques
Gamete A sex cell; includes sperm cells in males and egg cells in females
Fertilization The formation of zygote by the joining together, or fusion, of two gametes
Zygote A cell produced by the fusion of two gametes
Ova female sex cells (eggs cells)
Meiosis A two-stage cell division in which the resulting daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell; results in the formation of gametes or spores
Homologous Chromosomes Matching pairs of chromosomes, similar in size and carrying information for the same genes
Tetrad a pair of homologous chromosomes, each with two sister chromatids
Synapsis The physical pairing up of homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis
Crossing over The exchange of chromosome segments between homologous pairs during synapsis
Gametogenesis The production of gametes (sex cells) in animals
Spermatogenesis The production of mature sperm cells
Oogenesis The production of mature egg cells
Karyotype The chromosomes of an individual that have been sorted and arranged according to size and type
Sex Chromosomes Chromosomes that differ in males and females of the same species; the combination of sex chromosomes determines the sex of the offspring
Autosomes NOn-sex Chromosomes
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