β-lactamase Inhibitors

Zainab Hassoun
Flashcards by Zainab Hassoun, updated more than 1 year ago
Zainab Hassoun
Created by Zainab Hassoun over 5 years ago
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β-lactamase and all their stuff

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Question Answer
Which drugs are β-lactamase inhibitors? Clavulanic acid Sulbactam TAzobactam
β-lactamase Inhibitors provide the greatest β-lactam antibiotic potentiation against: E. coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, H. Influenza, MSSA, Streptococci
β-lactamase inhibitors are active against: gram-positive, gram-negative AND anaerobic bacteria
INFO CARD!!! β-lactamase are typically used in combination with other β-lactam antibiotics. What type of effect do they have on certain types of penicillin (amoxicillin, ampicillin, piperacillin, and ticarcillin)? They restore the antibacterial actions of these β-lactam drugs.
Clavulanic acid can be paired up with which penicillins? Ticarcillin and Amoxicillin
Ampicillin is paired up with which β-lactamase inhibitor? Sulbactam
Tazobactam is combined with which penicillin? Piperacillin
What do β-lactamase inhibitors do? (Mechanism of Action) Inhibition of β-lactamases!!! Produce stable intermediates with β-lactamases and prevents interactions w/penicillins (this is why the two are often paired together)
Clavulanic Acid 1. How is it administered? 2. Where is it absorbed and how long does it take? 3. Excretion? 4. CNS penetration? 1. Orally and I.V. 2. GI Tract (T 1/2 = 0.8 - 1.4 hrs) 3. Unchanged in urine (~20-60%) metabolites are excreted in lung, feces and urine 4. LOW CNS Penetration
Sulbactam 1. How is it administered? 2. Where is it absorbed and how long does it take? 3. Excretion? 4. CNS penetration? 1. Orally and I.V. 2. GI tract ( T 1/2 = 1 hr) 3. unchanged in urine, minor biliary, 25% metabolized 4. LOW CNS Penetration
Tazolactam 1. How is it administered? 2. Where is it absorbed and how long does it take? 1. Parenterally ONLY 2. kidneys ( t 1/2 = 1 hr) NOT STABLE in GI environment
Adverse Effects of a Ticarcillin-Clavulanic Acid combo 1. phlebitis at the infusion site 2. mild fever, diarrhea, nausea, skin rashes 3. defective platlet aggregation 4. hypokalemic
Adverse effects of a Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid combo 1. GI distress i.e. diarrhea, skin rashes, eosinophilia, abnormal liver function 2. associated with cholestatic heptatitis (nausea, fever, itching, jaundice) eosinophilia: an increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood
Adverse Effects of a Piperacillin-Tazolactam combo diarrhea, headache, insomnia, rash, itching, fever, hematogic cytopenia, elevated liver enzymes
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