Functional Anatomy.

JoseFINE Capolingua
Flashcards by JoseFINE Capolingua, updated more than 1 year ago
JoseFINE Capolingua
Created by JoseFINE Capolingua over 5 years ago


Western Australian Certificate of Education (WACE) Physical Education Studies Flashcards on Functional Anatomy., created by JoseFINE Capolingua on 11/08/2015.

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Question Answer
(5) Functions of the Skeleton. 1. Protect. 2. Support. 3. Produce blood. 4. Stores essential minerals. 5. Movement.
(3) Types of Bones. 1. Flat Bones. (pelvic girdle) 2. Long Bones. (femur, humerus) 3. Irregular Bones. (cranium)
Axial Skeleton. Central structure to support the remainder of the skeleton. Protects vital organs. Skull, vertebral column and ribs (thorax).
Appendicular Skeleton. Bones that assist with movement. The limbs or the body.
Bone Structure. Hollow. Contain bone marrow. Allow muscles to attach.
The Vertebral Column. 7 cervical vertebrae (neck). 12 thoracic vertebrae (chest). 5 lumbar vertebrae (lower back). 5 sacral vertebrae (sacrum). Coccyx.
(5) Functions of the Muscular System. 1. Produce movement. 2. Maintain bodily functions. 3. Maintain posture. 4. Stabilise joints. 5. Generate heat.
(3) Types of Muscles. 1. Voluntary. 2. Involuntary. 3. Cardiac.
Voluntary Muscles. Skeletal muscles. Moved voluntarily. Movement.
Involuntary Muscles. Involuntary movement, cannot be controlled. Bodily functions.
Cardiac Muscle. Can contract rapidly. Contraction is involuntary. Heart rate.
Muscle Movement. Muscles attached to bones. When the muscle contracts it pulls the bone and movement occurs.
Muscle Fibres. (2) Types. Skeletal muscles made of two main muscle fibres. 1. Slow twitch (red) fibres. 2. Fast twitch (white) fibres.
Slow Twitch (red) Fibres. Contract repeatedly for prolonged periods. Do not fatigue easily. Endurance activities.
Fast Twitch (white) Fibres. Larger than red fibres. Generate greater force. Powerful contractions. Active during change of pace/stop and go activities.
(3) Major Joints. 1. Synovial. 2. Cartilaginous. 3. Fibrous.
Fibrous Joints. Immoveable, they are fixed. Function: protection.
Cartilaginous Joints. Occur where bones connect. Made up of cartilage. Small movement possible.
Synovial Joints. (6) Types of Synovial Joints. Most common joint in body. Freely moveable. 1. Gliding. 2. Ball and Socket. 3. Hinge. 4. Saddle. 5. Pivot. 6. Ovoid.
Gliding Joint. Bone surfaces flat. Movement possible in linear directions. Two surfaces slide over each other. Carpal bones in wrist.
Ball and Socket Joint. "Ball" of one joint fits into "cup" of the other. Allows for circumduction. Hip and shoulder joints.
Hinge Joint. Movement in only one plane. Extension and Flexion. Knee, elbow, fingers and toes.
Saddle Joint. Two joints fit together like a rider on a saddle. Creates bending motions in several directions. Carpal and metacarpal bones in thumb.
Pivot Joint. One bone (ring shaped), pivots around another. Turning motions. Radius and ulna twist around each other.
Ovoid Joint. Allows flexion/extension, abduction/adduction and circumduction. Carpals of wrist and radius.
Anatomical Position. Reference position from which all other movements occur. Standing, feet together, hands by side, head, eyes and palms facing forwards.
Posterior and Anterior. Posterior: behind the reference point of a structure. Anterior: in front of the reference point of a structure.
Superior and Inferior. Superior: above the reference point of a structure. Inferior: below the reference point of a structure.
Medial and Lateral. Medial: towards the midline of a structure. Lateral: away from the midline of a structure.
Proximal and Distal. Proximal: closer to the attachment point of a limb. Distal: further away from the attachment point of a limb.
Superficial and Deep. Superficial: surface of a structure. Deep: away from the surface of a structure.
(12) Movements at Joints. 1. Flexion. 2. Extension. 3. Rotation. 4. Circumduction. 5. Supination. 6. Pronation. 7. Dorsi Flexion. 8. Plantar Flexion. 9. Abduction. 10. Adduction. 11. Eversion. 12. Inversion.
Flexion and Extension. Flexion: joint angle decreases. Extension: joint angle increases.
Rotation. A part turning on it's axis.
Circumduction. Circular movement of a limb.
Supination and Pronation. Supination: turning/rolling outwards. Pronation: turning/rolling inwards.
Dorsi and Plantar Flexion. Dorsi Flexion: decreasing angle at ankle joint (toes to knees). Plantar Flexion: increasing angle at ankle joint (pointing toes).
Abduction and Adduction. Abduction: movement away from the midline of the body. Adduction: movement towards the midline of the body.
Eversion and Inversion. Eversion: moving foot outwards at the ankle. Inversion: moving foot inwards at the ankle.
Antagonist Pairs. Muscles that have opposite actions to each other in a desired movement. When one contracts the other relaxes.
Agonist. The prime mover, involved in producing the movement.
Antagonist. Relaxes, allows a controlled movement to take place.
Origin and Insertion. Origin: bone attached to origin of muscle, does not move when muscle contracts, proximal end. Insertion: bone attached to insertion of muscle, moves more when muscle contracts, distal end.
Sliding Filament Theory. List the (3) Steps. Method by which muscles contract. 1. Impulse at junction causes chemical reaction. 2. Myosin attach to actin forming a crossbridge. 3. Myosin and actin slide across each other, the muscle contracts and movement is created.
Myofibril. Rod-like unit of a muscle. Muscle fibres that run along muscles.
Actin and Myosin. Found in myofibrils. Create movement by sliding across each other. Actin: creates movement. Myosin: converts chemical energy to ATP.
Crossbridge. Attachment of actin and myosin.
(3) Planes of the Body. 1. Coronal: cuts front and back. (abduction/adduction) 2. Sagital: cuts left and right. (flexion/extension) 3. Transversal: cuts up and down. (rotation)
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