Sociology

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From the fifth edition of "Sociology in our times" --- study guide that will help you through chapters 1,2,3,4,5,7,8,10,11,13,15,19

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Question Answer
sociology Auguste Comte systematic study of human society and social interaction. helps consider the complex connections in personal life and larger world
sociological imagination C. Wright Mills helps us understand the connection between personal experience and larger society
Harriet Martineau perspective involving social progress towards gender and social equality
Emile Durkheim societies are built on social facts, that rapidly change produces strain on society, anomie
Anomie loss of shared values and propose lead to loss of or ineffective use of social control
Karl Marx continuous clash between owners of means of production and the workers-who must sell their labor to survive
Max Weber necessary for individuals to acknowledge own actions
functionalist P. society is stable,orderly system. societal consensus criticism=overlooking the importance of change, out-dated
Conflict P. Continuous power struggle among competing groups: class, race, ethnicity, gender Critic=minimizes the importance of social stability and shared values in society
Feminist P. focus on the significance of gender in understanding an explaining the inequalities between men and women at home, work, politics, laws, culture
Symbolic Interactionist P how people make sense of everyday social interaction through mutually understand symbols. Focuses on Microlevel Critics= Ignores Macrolevel
Postmodern theorists P The need for new ways to view society instead of functionalist, conflict, interactionist P.
society a large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations
global interdependence a relationship in which that lives of all people are closely intertwined and any one nation's problems are part of a larger global problem
Commonsense knowledge guides ordinary conduct in everyday life. Equal to a Myth-false notion to perpetuate a belief or theory on inclusive evidence
high-income countries nations with highly industrialized economies; technologically advanced industry, administrative, and service occupations; relatively high national and personal incomes
middle-income countries nations with industrializing economies, urban areas, moderate levels of national and personal incomes
low-income countries primarily agrarian, with little industrialization, low levels of nation and personal income
Industrialization process by which societies are transformed from dependence on agriculture and handmade produce to manufacturing and related industries
Urbanization increasing proportions of a population lives in cities rather than rural areas
Positivism August Comte a belief that the world can be understood through the use of scientific inquiry
law of three stages 1) the theological = religious + supernatural 2) metaphysical =abstract philosophical speculation 3) scientific/positive =systematic, history observation, experiment, comparison
Social Darwinism Herbert Spencer belief that those species of animals best adapted to their environment survive ad prosper, or die idea of progress adaption
Social Facts Emile Durkheim patterned ways of acting, thinking, and feeling
alienation Class Conflict -a feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and oneself -struggle between capitalist class and working class
Who said Sociology should be Value free? Max Weber
dyad triad formal sociology Georg Simmel a group of two; a group of three -an approach that focuses attention on the universal, recurring social forms of the social interaction and the content of social interaction in different contexts
theory perspective -a set of logically interrelated statements that attempts to describe, explain, and predict -an overall approach to or viewpoint on some subject
societal consensus functionalist P -majority of the members share a common set of values, beliefs, and behavioral expectations.
instrumentalist tasks expressive tasks Who believed that societies must make provisions for the social needs in order to survive? -leadership, decision making, employment=father or husband -housework, support child and emotional family needs=mother/wife Talcott parsons
Manifest functions Latent Functions -intended and/overtly recognized by the participants in a social unit -unintended functions that are hidden and remain unacknowledged by participants
social solidarity state of having shared beliefs, values among members of a social group, along with intense and frequent interaction among group members
macrolevel analysis microlevel analysis -examines whole societies, large scale social structures, and social systems -focuses on small groups rather than large-scale social structures
Which postmodernist believed in the dissolution of TV into life? Jean Baurillard
altruism behavior intended to help others and done without expectation of personal benefit
the 5 ways in knowing the world Personal experience Tradition Authority Religion Science
Empirical Approach: 1)Descriptive Studies 2)Explanatory Studies answers questions through a direct, systematic collection and analysis of data 1)describe social reality 2)explain relationships, and why events occur
Inductive Approach Deductive Approach -researcher collects and analyzes data and then generates a theory based on analysis -researcher begins with a theory and then collects and analyzes research to test it
Quantitative research Process 1) select and define research problems 2)review previous research 3)formulate hypothesis, construct variables 4)developing the research design 5) collect and analyze data 6)draw conclusions and report findings
hypothesis tentative statements of the relationship between two or more concepts or variables
objective scientists try to ensure their biases and values do not affect their research
deductive approach vs inductive approach 0200210402002.png (image/png)
reliability extend to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results
validity extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is measuring
replication repetition of a study = the same results
research methods specific strategies or techniques for conducting reseach
experiment always has an experimental group and control group -lab, natural, field experiements
Reactivity tendency of participants to change their behavior in response to the fact that they know they are being studied
Survey respondents -identical questions asked through interviews or questionnaires -provide data for analysis in interviews or questionnaires
field research: case studies - indepth study of single event, person, or social grouping ethnography - study of life and activities of people by researchers who may live with that group over years
field research: unstructured interviews open-ended interaction between an interviewer and an interviewee
secondary analysis existing material and analyze of data originally collected by others
content analysis Cultural artifacts -systematic examination of cultural artifacts or various forms of communication to extract thematic data for conclusions about social life -products of individual, social organizations, tech., cultural patterns
Triangulation -using more than one means of research, data, perspectives in a study
material culture non material culture physical, tangible creations that member of a society make, use, and share abstract, intangible human creations of society that influence people's behaviors
technology -knowledge, techniques, tools that make it possible for people to transform resources into usable forms
cultural universals customs and practices that occur across all societies ex-appearances, activities, intuitions, customs
language a set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another
Sapir-Whorf-hypothesis language shapes views of reality of its speakers
languages effects-2 things gender role/identity, race/ethnicity,
values collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture
value contradictions values that conflict with one another or are mutually exclusive
ideal culture real culture -the values and standards of behavior that people in society profess to hold -the values and standards of behavior that people do follow.
norms: prescriptive norms proscriptive norms -established rules of behaviors or standards of conduct 1)appropriate, acceptable 2)inappropriate, unacceptable
formal norms informal norms Sanctions -written down punishments for violators -unwritten standards of behavior understood by common identity -rewards or punishments for appropriate/inappropriate behaviors
Folkways Mores -informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture -strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences
taboos mores so strong that their violation is considered to be extremely offensive and unmentionable
laws-2 types formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions Civil, Criminal
cultural lag discovery Invention -a gap between the technical development and its moral and legal intuitions -learning about something previously unknown or unrecognized -reshaping existing cultural items into a new form
diffusion transmission of cultural items or social practices from one group or society to another
subculture a group of people who share a distinctive set of cultural beliefs and behaviours that differ in some way from larger society
counterculture culture shock -a group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms ad seeks alternative lifestyles -disorientation that people feel when encounter cultures radically different from their own
cultural relativism belief that the behaviors and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the culture's own standards
Cultural Capital theory high culture culture Pierre Boudieu -high culture as a device used by the dominant class to exclude the subordinate classes -classical music, opera, live theater, the elite -rock concerts, sports, movies,TV, comedys
cultural imperialism extensive infusion of one nation's culture into other nations
what is Culture? -knowledge, language, values, and customs passed from one generation to the next -essential for individual survival -can be a stabilizing or conflicting source withing the society -material and non material culture
Socialization lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society. -humans need it to learn in the early years from social groups and environment
degree of physical and human characteristics based on heredity/environment? -humans are born with unique characteristics or gained through socialization 1)heredity = nature, physical makeup 2)social environment = nurture, how we develop and behave
Sociobiology Social isolation/contact systematic study of how biology affects social behavior -social contact needed to develop the self/self-concept
agents of socialization 4 types persons,groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society family, schools, peer group, mass media
peer group a group of people who are linked by common interests, equal social position, and similar age
self-concept 4 components -totality of our beliefs and feelings about ourselves 1) physical self = i am tall 2) active self = i am good at soccer 3)social self = I am nice to others 4)psychological self = i believe in...
self-identity our perception of what kind of person we are gain this info through language, symbols, and interactions with others -we are active agents developing plans to use in society
looking-glass self Charles Horton Cooley way in which a person's sense of self is derived from the perception of others. -how families perceive and treat us
families -transmit cultural and social values 1)procreating and socializing children 2)provide emotional support 3)assigning position
the school -teach knowledge and skills; influence self-image, beliefs, values
Peer groups -sense of belonging and self-worth; reinforce cultural norms and acceptable behaviors
Mass Media 1) inform us about world events 2)introduce us to a wide variety of people 3)provide and opportunity to live through characters on TV
Role-taking George Herbert Mead -the process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person in order to understand the world from another's point of view -I=spontaneous/unique, Me=internalized attitudes and demands of society
3 stages of self-development Mead 1)preparatory 2)play 3) game
Cognitive Development Jean Piaget 1)sensorimotor + object permanence 2)Preoperational 3)Concrete operational 4)Formal operational stage
Moral Stages of Development Lawerence Kohlberg Pre,Post - - Conventional
gender socialization aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female and male in a specific group/ society
When does socialization end? -on going throughout the life time of the individual
social devaluation resocialization -a person or a group is considered to have less social value than another -process of learning a new/different set of attitudes, behaviours
total institution a place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and come under the control of officials who run the institution
social interaction process by which people act toward or respond to other people and is the foundation for all relationships/groups
social structure a stable pattern of social relationships that exists within a particular group or society
relative homelessness social marginality -being housed in a dwelling that fails to meet basic living standards -state of being part insider and outsider in the social structure
stigma -an physical or social attribute or sign that so devalues a person's social identity that it disqualifies that person from full social acceptance
status status set -a socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, duties -made up of all the statuses that a person occupies at a given time
ascribed status achieved status master status -conferred at birth or involuntarily -person assumes voluntarily: personal choice, merit, or direct effort -most important status a person occupies
role role expectation role performance -a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status -a group/society's defined way to perform a specific role -how a person plays the role
role conflict role strain -incompatible role demands placed on a person by two or more statues at a time -incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies
-role exit -when people disengage from social roles that have been central to their self-identity
Social Groups consists of 2-more people who interact frequently and share common identity and feeling of interdependence
primary group secondary group -a small less specialized group in which members engage in face-face, emotion based interactions -larger, more specialized group in which members engage in more impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited time
social network a series of social relationships that link an individual to others
formal organization -highly structured group for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals
social institution a set of organized beliefs and riles that establish how a society will strive to meet its basic social needs
social institutions: 5 essential tasks 1)Replacing Members 2)teaching new members 3)Producing, distributing, and consuming goods and services 4)Preserving Order 5)Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose
Mechanical Solidarity Emile Durkheim social cohesion in pre-industrail societies, in which there is minimal division of labour and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds
Organic Solidarity Emile Durkheim social cohesion in industrial societies, in which people perform specialized tasked and feel united by their mutual dependence
Gemeinschaft Gesellschaft Ferdinand Tonnies -a traditional society: social relationships are based on personal bonds of friends and kin, stability -large, urban society: social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized rela. with little long term commitment to group or values
Goffman Civil Inattention and interaction order
social construction process of our perception of reality is shaped by the subjective meaning that we give an experience
self-fulfilling prophecy a false belief or prediction that produces a behaviors that makes the originally false belief come-true
Ethnomethodology study of the commonsense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they find themselves
background expectancy breaching experiments Harold Garfinkel -shared interpretation of objects and events as resulting actions -different activities to his students to see how breaking the unspoken rules of behaviours created confusion
Dramaturgical Analysis Impression management Goffman -study of social interaction that compares everyday life to theatrical presentation -peoples efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interests
Feelings Rule Arlie Hochschild -shape the appropriate emotions for a given role or specific situation
non-verbal communication personal space -transfer of information between persons without the use of speech -immediate area surrounding a person that the person claims as private
social control systematic practices developed by social groups to encourage conformity and to discourage deviance
deviance any behaviour, belief, or condition that violates cultural norms in the society or group in which it occurs
crime an act that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms and other sanctions
strain theory Robert Merton people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals
illegitimate opportunity structures Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot get through legitimate channels
social bonding theory Travis Hirschi -holds that probability of deviant behavior increase when a person's ties to society are weakened or broken 1)attachment to other ppl 2) commitment to conventional lines of behavior 3)involvement in conventional activities 4)belief in legitimacy of conventional values and norms
differential association Theory Edwin Sutherland -individuals have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate w/ persons who favour deviance over conformity
Labelling Theory william chambliss -deviants are those people who have been successfully labelled as such by others primary deviance(initial act)-> stigmatization -> Deviant self image -> Secondary Deviance (accepts new self, continuing deviance)
moral entrepreneurs moral crusaders -persons who use their own views of right and wrong to establish rules and label others as deviant -public and media awareness campaigns that help generate public and political support for their causes
Indictable offenses Summary conviction offenses -homicide, sexual assault, robbery, B&E -minor offenses: fraudulently obtaining food, causing a disturbance
4 types of crime 1) street - violent, property, moral 2)occupational/white-collar/corporate - in course of employment, or financial affairs 3)organized - business operation that supplies goods and services for profit 4)political - unethical acts involving misuse of power by gov. officials, or from an outside group to undermine or overthrow
Major types of crime reports? CUCR victimization surveys -Canadian Uniform Crime Reporting: lists police reports -VS = determine crimes not in police reports ex spousal abuse
property violence peaks at ages 15-18 years
Men make up ___% of violence committed in Canada 80
police open 24 hours, in service to the people authority - intervene in situations where something must be done non-negotiable force - use force to arrest
punishment RSRD any action designed to deprive a person of things of value 1)Retribution 2) Social Protection 3) Rehabilitation 4) Deterrence
Restorative Justice -seek to return focus of justice to repairing harm to victim and community ex - victim-offender reconciliation and family gathering conferencing
community corrections -programs, community probation, community service orders, intensive probation supervision, bail supervision Perks = cheaper, humanitarian, maintaining family/community ties
persons under the age of ___ have the highest likelihood to commit a crime 25 years
Social Stratification hierarchical arrangement of large groups based on their control over basic resources
Max Weber - life chances extent to which individuals have access to important societal resources = food, clothing, shelter, education, health care
open system closed system - the boundaries between levels in the hierarchies are more flexible and influenced by achieved status -boundaries between levels are rigid, people's positions are set
Social Mobility movement of people from one level in stratification to another
Intergenerational mobility intragenerational mobility -social movement experienced by one generation to the next -social movement of individuals within their own lifetime
Slavery extreme stratification - owning another person
caste system Apartheid Endogamous -social system of inequality, peoples status is ascribed at birth based on parents -separation of race -only allowed to marry within own group
class system horizontal mobility vertical mobility -stratification based on the ownership and control of resources and work -loss or gain without change -movement up or down in class structure
Income Wealth -economic gain through wage, salaries, government aid, ownership of property -property, bank accounts, stocks,bonds, insurance
prestige power max weber -the respect with which a person/ status is regarded by other -ability of ppl or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others
Max webers classes of stratification 1) Rentiers -wealthy individuals who live off investments and don't work 2)Entrepreneurs - wealthy bankers, ship owners, professionals , merchants 3)Middle class 4)skilled labour 5)semi-skilled labour 6)unskilled labour
Max Webers - SES Socioeconomic Status -combined measures that attempt to classify individuals, families, households, in terms of income, occupation, edcuation = class location
pink collar occupations relatively low paying, nonmanual job, semiskilled -often held by women
Erik Olin Wright's Class Model 1) Capitalist class 2)Managerial class 3) small business class 4)working class
Consequences of inequality -difference in income, wealth -access to goods and services -opportunity and life chances - health and nutrition -type of crime commited
low-income cutoff income level which a family may be in straitened circumstances to spend considerably more on basic needs then average
Absolute poverty relative poverty -people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life -people may be able to afford necessities but still are unable to maintain an average standard of living
feminization of poverty trend in women who are disproportionately represented among individuals living in poverty -single mother, earns less, part time jobs
event driven poverty reshuffled poverty multiple jeopardies - divorce, separation, widowhood -deprivation that follows them regardless of martial status -greater risk of poverty: immigrants, visible minority, disabilities
job deskilling a reduction in proficiency needed to perform a specific job that leads to a corresponding reduction in the wages for that job
meritocracy David-Moore thesis -hierarchy in which all positions are rewarded based on people's ability and credentials 1)Important tasks to be filled 2) some positions are more important 3)Qualification must be met 4)talent is scarce, extensive training 5)highly rewarded positions to Quality
race category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, basis of real or alleged physical characteristics
ethnic group 5 groupings collection of ppl distinguished, by others or by themselves, on basis of cultural or nationality characteristics 1)unique cultural traits 2)a sense of community 3)feeling of ethnocentrism 4)ascribed membership from birth 5)territoriality, distinct geographic location
majority/dominant group minority group -one that is advantaged, has superior resources and rights -members whose physical and cultural traits are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment = objects of collective discrimination
visible minority official governments category of nonwhite/Caucasian individuals
prejudice racial prejudice -a negative attitude based on preconceived notions about a select group -involves beliefs about certain racial groups making them inferior with negative traits
stereotypes over generalizations about the appearance, behavior, characteristics of members of particular group
scapegoat a person or group that is incapable of offering resistance to hostility/aggression of others
authoritarian personality excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, high level of superstition, rigid, stereotype thinking
social distance extent to which a people are willing to interact and establish relationship with members of racial/ethnic groups other than their own
discrimination actions or practices of dominant group members that have a harmful impact on members of subordinate group
2 types of discrimination de jure de facto -a legal discrimination, encoded by law -informal discrimination entrenched in customs and institutions
Robert Mertons 4 combinations of attitudes and responses 1)Unprejudiced nondiscriminators - equality for all 2)Unprejudiced disciminattors- no personal prejudices, but engages in discrimination 3)Prejudiced nondisriminators- personal prejudices but do not discriminate 4)prejudiced disciminators- personal prejudices and discriminate
Racism a set of ideas implying superiority of one social group over another on the basis of biological or cultural characteristics, together with power to put beliefs into practice to deny or exclude
Overt racism polite racism -take form of public statements about inferiority of a racial/ethnic group -an attempt to disguise a dislike of others through behaviors outwardly nonprejudicial
subliminal racism institutionalized racism -a form of subconscious racism occurring when there is a conflict of values -made up of rules, procedures, and practices which may directly or indirectly promote, sustain, entrench differential advantage or privilege to dominant ppl
assimilation a process in which members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups become absorbed into dominant culture
ethnic pluralism co-existence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society Canadian Multiculuralism Act 1988
Segregation spatial and social separation of categories of ppl by race, ethnicity, class, gender, or religon -de facto or de jure (Jim Crow Laws)
internal colonialism a situation in which members of a racial or ethnic group are conquered or colonized and forcibly placed under economic and political control
split-market theory division of economy into two areas: 1)primary sector-upper tier/higher paid jobs 2)secondary sector-lower paid, little security
discource Michael Foucault -different ways of structuring knowledge and social practice
deconstructing analyzing the assumption and meanings embedded in scientific works
Royal Proclamation of 1763 Constitution Act 1867 Indian Act 1876 -divided up territory, forbidden outside treaty -gave jurisdiction over Indians and land to federal gov. -every aspect of life controlled by gov., promote assimilation, took children away
British North America Act 1867 quiet revolution (1960-66) Bill 101 -acknowledge rights and privileges of french -Quebec nationalism grew, catholic church no longer control over education -french as sole language rejected
Immigration Act of 1869 -excluded diseased, criminals, Japanese, Chinese, east Asians
anti-Chinese bill 1885 1907 Asiatic Exclusion Act -limit Chinese immigration, removed during Immigration act 1960s -restricting admissions to Japanese, and sikhs
Continuous passage rule 1908 -South Asians had to make one trip no stops, strait to canada -repealed after WWII
Immigration Act 1962 1967 2002 Immigration and Refugee Act - opened the doors in nonracial basis -points system to enter was introduced: job training, skills, education, language, job offer -3 classes of families:economic, family, refugee
sex biological and anatomical differences between females and males.
hermaphrodite transsexual transvestite -sexual differentiation is ambiguous/incomplete -a person who believes that he or she was born with body of wrong sex -a male who lives as a women, or female who lives as a man but does not alter genitalia
sexual orientation homosexuality heterosexuality bisexuality -individuals preference for emotional-sexual relationships with of a species -same sex -opposite sex BOTH! woohoo
3 criteria for homosexual or bisexual 1) sexual attraction to persons of one's own gender 2) sexual involvement with one's own gender 3) self-identification
transgender - a person whose appearance, behavior, self-identification to common social rules of gender
gender culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in meanings, beliefs, practices - femininity and masculinity
gender role attitudes, behaviors, activities that are socially defined as appropriate for sex and learned through socialization
gender identity body consciousness -a person's perception of self as female or male -how a person perceives and feels about his or her body, also includes an awareness of social conditions in society that contribute to this self-knowledge
sexism subordination of one sex, usually female, based on assumed superiority of other sex 1) negative attitude 2)stereotypical beliefs reinforce prejudice 3)discrimination - an act
causes of gender inequality? economic, political, education discrimination against women -workplace, specific jobs, cut pay, division of labour -declined since 1970
gender bias consists of showing favouritism toward on gender over the over
wage gap -disparity between men and women -70 cents / 1 dollar
pay equity employment equity -wages ought to reflect the worth of work, not gender, race -a strategy to eliminate the effects of discrimination and fully open competition for job opportunities to those who have been excluded historically
Economy social institution that ensures the maintenance of society through production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
primary sector extraction of raw material and natural resources from the environment
secondary sector processing of raw material into finished goods
post-industrial economy based on the provision of services rather than goods 1)info displaces property 2)workplace shifts from factories to diversification, cut-backs, lay offs 3)traditional boundaries between work and home are being set aside
Capitalism an economic system characterized by private ownership of means of productions, from which personal profits can be derived through market competition and without gov, interference
4 Qualities of Ideal Capitalism 1) private ownership of the means of production 2)pursuit of profit 3)competition 4)lack of gov. intervention
staples lumber, wheat, primary industries, minerals.
commercial capitalism merchants controlled the trade in raw materials
industrial capitalism inventions of steam engine, spinning jenny - led to a change in society
corporations large-scale organization that have legal powers, such as to enter a contract and buy and sell property, separate from individual power
multinational corporations large companies that are headquartered in one country and have subsidiaries or branches in other countries
oligopoly several companies overwhelmingly control an entire industry ex Nestle
laissez-faire market economy/free enterprise Adam Smith - no gov. intervention 1776 -free market competition set prices not gov.
Gov. intervention in Canada business aid
socialism economic system characterized by public ownership of means of production, pursuit of collective goals, centralized decision making -a route to communism (Marx)
The communist manifesto -working class would rebel from impoverished and alienated states -workers become aware of their own class interests, revolt against capitalists, overthrow system
Ideal Socialism 1)public ownership of means of production 2)pursuit of collective goals 3)centralized decision making
Mixed Economy combines elements of market economy(capitalism) with elements of command economy (socialism)
democratic socialism an economic political system that combines private ownership of some of the means of production, governmental distribution of some essential goods and services
expansion inflation recession -economy thrives, building, increased production, upward social mobility -a sustained and continuous increase in prices -decline in an economy total production lasts no longer than 6 months
The End of Work Jeremy Rifkin -working less, people gain freedom
Relationship between gender and work. Amy Wharton 1) characteristic of housework=women's 2)economic inequality between men and women 3)structural and institutional bases of gender in workplace
the tipping point Rosabeth Kanter -gender or race in the minority in workplace = excluded, lacked support, -15-20%=the tipping point
Occupations categories of jobs that involve similar activities at different work sites
Professions -high-status, knowledge-based occupations 1. Abstract-Specialized Knowledge 2)Autonomy -rely on own judgement 3)Self-regulation-regulate members 4)Authority - expect compliance 5)Altruism -self sacrifice for patients
Scientific management time-motion studies Frederick Winslow Taylor -an effort to increase productivity of factories -studied workers he found efficient - taught to perform work in concise steps = deskilling
Henry Ford technical control assembly line -control due to machines -workers perform a specialized operation on an unfinished production as it is moved by a conveyor belt
Marginal Jobs differ from the employment norms of the society in which they are located -more likely to a women
contingent work -part-time, temporary work
unemployment rate percentage of unemployed persons in the labour force actively seeking jobs
labour unions a group of employees who join together to bargain with an employer or a group of employers over wages, benefits, working conditions
how has globalization effected workers -competitive = employment of low wage countries -closing of high-wage factories/countries -increased trade
families we choose - social arrangements that include intimate relationships between couples and close familial relationships with other couples and with other adults and children
families relationship, in which people live together with commitment, economic unit, children, identity attachment
kinship social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption
family of orientation family of procreation -family born into, taking you through early socialization process -person forms a family by having or adopting a child
extended family a family unit composed of relatives in addition to parents and children who live in same household
nuclear family a family composed of one or two parents and their dependent children, all of whom live apart from other relatives
Marriage legally recognized/socially approved arrangement b/w two individuals carry rights and obligations, involving sex
patrilineal descent a system of tracing descent through the fathers side of family pre-industrail
matrilineal descent a system tracing descent through eh mother's side of the family
bilateral descent a system of tracing descent through both the mother's and father's sides of the family
patriarchy family matriarchal family -eldest male has authority -eldest female has authority
egalitarian family power is shared by the both partners equally -increased with legal status and education of women -gender role in children is linked to EF
sociology of family subdiscipline of sociology that attempts to describe and explain patterns if family life and variations in family structure
Emile Durkheim and Talcott Parsons Divisions of Labour- 4 1)Sexual Regulation 2)Socialization 3)Economic and psychological support 4)Provision of social status
shared reality in marital partners Berger and Kellner
women and men experience "his" and "her" realities, separation Jessie Bernard
Socialization of passive females and aggressive males Lenore Walker 1)low self esteem on both people involved 2)a limited range of behaviour: possessive and dominant or dependent and eager 3)stereotype beliefs in gender roles
Permeable David Elkind capable of being diffused or invaded in such a manner that an entity;s original purpose is modified or changed
Cohabitation couple's living together without being legally married
Margaret Mead two stage marriage individual marriage-serious commitment without children parental marriage-a couple decides to have children and share responsibility
Homogamy pattern of individuals marrying those who have similar characteristics, such as race/ethnicity, religious background, age, education, social class
dual-earner families second shift -both partners are in labour force -domestic work that employed women perform at home after there labour job
Infertility -inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual relations females -30-40% of the time males 40% 20% is unknown
intrauterine insemination test-tube baby In vitro fertilization -sperm goes in uterus during ovulation -conception, gestation, birth outside body -ovulation, removing egg from women, implant sperm in dish, back intro women
traditional surrogacy gestational surrogacy -surrogate is inseminated with fathers sperm, women's infertility -egg and sperm from parents go to a surrogate with technology
family violence - 2 types Spousal Abuse-women being mistreated by man, physical, emotional, economic abuse Child abuse-physical or sexual, neglect
divorce: causes - 2 effects 3 -dissolving of marriage 1) social institutions (macrolevel) 2)age, resources, religion, parental maternal happiness(microlevel) -increase in blended families, step families, binuclear families
heterosexism attitude in which heterosexuality is considered the only valid form of sexual behaviour, everything else inferior
Demography subfield of sociology that examines population size, composite, distribution
3 processes of population 1)fertility-level of childbearing for an individual or population 2)mortality-incidence of death in a pop. 3)migration - movement of ppl into a geographic area to take up residence
crude birth rate crude death rate infant mortality rate -# of live births/1000 ppl in a pop./year -# of live deaths/1000 ppl in a pop/year -# of deaths of infants under 1/1000 live births/ year
Immigration Emigration -movement of people into a geographic area to take up residency -movement of people out of geographic region to take up residency
Pull factors Push Factors -democratic gov, religious freedom, employment, climate, -political unrest, war, famine, natural disasters, oppression
population composition biological and social characteristics of population
sex ratio - # of males for every hundred females
population pyramid a graphic representation of distribution of pop. by sex and age -Canada=rectangle/diamond, low birth rate and increase in old ppl -Mexico, pyramid-high fertility and mortality rate -Russia=odd shape catastrophic events, wars, famine, WWII
baby boom baby bust -dramatic increase in births, after WWII -low levels of birth that remain today,1966
baby boom echo -the children of baby boomers, fewer children, age 29, university enrollment
Malthusian perspective thomas malthus doubling effect positive checks preventive checks -population would grow at geometric progression (2,4,8,16...)food grows at arithmetical progression (1,2,3,4,...) -scarcity of food/lack of supply -morality risks, famine and disease -limits on fertility
Marx and Engel food supply -food shortage is not caused by overpopulation but instead surplus of workers to create suppression from capitalists
Neo-Malthusians dangers of overpopulation: too little food and degradation of environment
Demographic Transition Theory process by which some societies has moved from high birth+death rates to relatively low birth and death rates = technological advancement
Stages of Demographic Transition Theory -4 1)Pre-industrial - little pop growth, high mortality in children, 30years 2)Early industrialization-pop growth, high birth, lower death rates, improvements on health, Africa, Asia, Latin America 3)Advanced industrialization and urbanization-little pop growth, low death and birth, children consume 4)Post-industrialization-decline in birth rates, women employed, children=consume$$$
urban sociology a subfield of sociology that examines social relationships and political and economic structures in the city
metropolis one or more central cities and their surrounding suburbs that dominate the economic and cultural life of a region.
central city -a densely populated centre of a metropolis
Concentric Zone model Ernest Burgess circular areas or zones, different type of land used to develop from central core
Invasion process in which a new category of ppl or type of land use arrives in an area previously occupied by another group or land use
Succession a new category of people or type of land use gradually predominates in an area formerly dominated by another group or activity
Gentrification process by which members of middle and upper-middle class move into the central city and renovate existing properties
the sector Model Hoyt significance of terrain and importance of transportation routes in the layout of cities
Multiple nuclei model Harris and Ullman Toronto, NewYork,Edmonton cities do not have one centre from all growth radiates, specific numerous centres of development based on needs ad activities
difference between Canda and US cities 1.C=greater density and less urban sprawl, cheaper services 2)C=core is healthier US=donut cities, crime=, poverty 3)C=public transit more than US
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