HGG Unit 3 (missing: aging brain)

Gurpreet Singh
Flashcards by Gurpreet Singh, updated more than 1 year ago
Gurpreet Singh
Created by Gurpreet Singh over 5 years ago
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Unit test review

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Question Answer
What Is Plasticity? The ability of the brain to develop and change in response to the demands of the environment.
Explain Synaptic Pruning The brain works on a "use it or lose it" basis, connections that get used often remain and grow stronger whereas connections that are not used often get pruned off or cut back.
What are the 3 different systems of the brain? Thinking system, limbic system, and automatic body functions system.
List the 3 parts of the thinking system. Cerebral Cortex Cerebrum: (lobes: occipital, temporal, parietal, frontal) Corpus Callosum
Explain the cerebral cortex 1/4 thick blanket of cells covering the outside of the brain that looks like a long coiled rope.
Explain the Cerebrum and it's 4 lobes. Makes up 70% of the brain and is split into hemispheres. Occipital lobe: at the back of the brain, processes vision and matures very early. Temporal lobe: located near ears and processes auditory stimuli. Parietal lobe: toward back of the brain and interpret/integrates information from senses. Frontal lobe- just behind forehead, contains smell centers, and deals with memory and resoning.
Explain the Corpus Callosum Bundle of nerves working together like a coordinator, letting one hemisphere know what the other is doing so that they can work together.
What is the limbic system? Connects key parts of the brain and regulates emotion and long term memory.
List the 5 components of the limbic system and explain what each one does. Hippocampus-codes info into long/short term memory. Thalamus-directs info to correct part of the brain-except smell. Hypothalamus-controls hunger, sleep, thirst, sexuality, and emotions. Amygdala-has to do with regulation of emotions and motivation. Pituitary gland-secretes hormones to regulate growth, metabolism and sexual development.
List and define the 3 parts of the Automatic Body System. Cerebellum-controls coordination and balance. Brain stem-works with spinal cord to control functions such as bp and bleeding. Spinal cord-transmits info from brain to body.
What are neuron? List and explain the different parts of a neurons? Neurons are the building blocks of the brain. Cell body-controls cell and directs its activities. Dendrites-fine threadlike tentacles, branch out from cell like trees, recieve signals in form of chemical messages. Axon-long threadlike tentacle, carries signals from cell body of one neuron to the dendrites of another.
List the 2 types of factors affecting brain development and provide examples. Genetic factors-mental health issues, schizophrenia, Alzheimer, brain tumors, seizures, stroke, disease etc, Environmental factors-drugs/alcohol, music, excercise, stimulation, reading, puzzles, memory games, car accident, healthy food, education, abuse etc.
How is the baby's brain changing and developing? As trillions of connections are being made, unused cells get killed off in a pruning process and it becomes difficult to complete tasks related to those parts of the brain later on in life as those connections are now wear of don't exist. To build the brain, neurons build layer by layer.
What influences a baby's brain development? Positive: Input of new light and sound after birth helps to shape connections that are made, which is why it is important to visually stimulate a baby's brain. Negative: premature birth can remove the baby from the protection of the womb and expose it to all the challenges they will face in the outside world before they are completely done developing.
What do experts say about the baby's brain? The brain can be thought of as a play with a script written by our genes, lacking a producer and director, with inexperienced actors who are able to pull off the play successfully. Also-babies cannot be nursed back to health by intensive care units alone, they also require human interaction to maintain regular brain growth.
How do experiences affect the way a aby's brain develops? Provide an example. Cells that have not yet laid down their connective tissue and are not yet active can be stimulated and strengthened by talking to the baby and exposing them to a variety of visual environments to make establish connections that have not yet been pruned. For example, if a baby is born with a hearing disability and has never heard a single sound in their life, then the cells that process sound will weaken and die. Ex. if a baby is born with a hearing disability and has never heard a single sound in their life, then the cells that process sound will weaken and die. Even if the baby gets a hearing aid at age 1, than his/her sense of sound will be weaker than others of their age.
Give examples of major negative factors in a baby's brain development. In the video, Baby Elizabeth had the rest of her organs working normally, but her brain still had 3 months of critical development to do. Another problem would be when a stronger organ has to fight a weaker organ for connections in the brain. Baby Holly was born with a cataract in one eye which had to be removed as soon as possible so that the specific connections in her brain targeting vision could be formed. Even with the cataract removed from her right eye, it was weaker and her left eye would be able to form stronger connections in the brain, leaving her right eye even weaker. To prevent this, her left eye would be kept covered for 5 years to allow her right eye to form stronger connections.
How is a child's brain changing and developing? The child’s brain starts forming connections and does synaptic pruning to get rid of connections that it feels are not needed. As the child grows into an adult the brain becomes more and more complex, containing many highly specialized parts, language find its home in the left cerebral hemisphere. Vocabulary grammar and comprehension are all a parts of different language systems with their own neural circuitry, scientists are not sure if it’s there at birth or develops over time, is it genetic or does if it depends on what a child experiences.
What influences the child's brain? Learning experiences determine which connections are weakened or strengthened, which will determine how easily they are able to do certain tasks later on in life. Ariel Algase is almost 2 and understands both english and spanish because that is what her parents know, but she knows more spanish, so we can expect a response from left hemisphere to Spanish, but all over to English if increasing vocabulary is what drives language specialization, and research finds that the brain has begun to specialize in Spanish, the language they know best. Therefore experience is what drives language specialization, not brain maturation.
What do experts say about the child's brain? Particia Kuhl did an experiment that experiment looks at how waves of a baby’s brain responds to languages they know vs foreign languages and record what happens to the brain at the baby hears the Chinese-Mandarin “she” vs the chinese mandarin “chi” sound. To adults they sound the same, but at birth and for a short period of time after, babies can hear the differences between all the sounds used in the world’s languages. Babies are born with the ability to learn any language.
Dow do experiences influence the child's brain development? The experiences a child has while growing up shape the brain into what is becomes and usually determines what the child will excel at in life, and which things/tasks they will have difficulty with. For example, there is a close connection between speaking, learning, and listening, so if one is weak, others will be affected as well. Let's say that a child is always told to be quiet and never given the opportunity to speak, when they are a little bit older, is their speech is weak, they may experience difficulty with learning, or listening and understanding too.
Give examples of major negative factors in a child's brain development. Katie Wareck at age 8 who cannot talk anymore due to many seizures, so they get rid of the left hemisphere where the seizures are happening to give her a chance to live like a regular child in a 6 hr operation. Katie recovered well from surgery and was cured of seizures Another one of the problem presented in the video were those of 14 yr old Michael Raybine, who 7 years ago had the same surgery done, leaving him with half his body paralyzed, and had to start off like an infant and learn everything over again, but right hemisphere is just as good as the left hemisphere at understanding language, and brain is much more plastic, speech is most difficult. a third problem seen in the video was that of Russell Train, who is a dyslexic child and has trouble learning because the words on the page appear as scrambled images in their brains. It is possible for children like Russell to learn, they just need to be taught with different techniques like separating syllables. Repetition and practice are also a big help.
How is the teenage brain changing and developing? The adolescent brain is nearly fully developed and is at the stage where it is susceptible to damage from substance abuse and can also develop certain mental illnesses/disorders like schizophrenia. Schizophrenia would be caused by prefrontal cortex deficiency and starts during adolescence and adulthood. If the prefrontal cortex of the brain is not working as it should, it can affect the most important function of the brain, which is thinking. It can make it difficult for one to think and impairs their cognitive abilities. The brain at this point in the lifespan is still very adaptable and can change as it is searching for the answer to “What am I good at?” to find a purpose in life and a way to make a living.
What influences the teenage brain? One major negative factor during the teenage years is substance abuse, as the use of substances created the feeling of a “high” that the child learns to love, but the brain soon learns of this and starts to shut off the dopamine receptors that create this feeling and more of the substance is required to achieve the same effect. This can lead to overdose and addiction issues, which will divert the teen’s attention away from more important things. I don’t recall any positive factor being given in the video, but finding a hobby that occupied your time and doesn’t allow you to be idle for long is a good way to stay away from the excuse of trying drugs “because I was bored”
What do experts say about the teenage brain? Scientists say that malnutrition during pregnancy, viral infection, and genetic makeup can all cause schizophrenia, drugs can also cause schizophrenia as they often cause the teen to hallucinate. They believe that these become limiting factors in a child’s growth.
How do experiences influence teenage brain development? One major thing that affects brain development is the environment a teen in growing up in. For example, growing up surrounded by people you are addicts is likely to make the teen themselves turn into an addict as well. This is a negative factor for the reasons that I have explained above. Another factor is that the environment a teen experiences during their recovery period from addiction may cause them to relapse. For example, seeing people that were once a part of your addiction, and being in the same environment as before can bring back memories and can trigger the need for a substance in the teens mind.
Give examples of major negative factors in teenage brain development. One major difficulty presented in the video was schizophrenia, this mental illness has many symptoms like lack of emotions, feeling empty, no longer wants to live, visions, voices, hallucinations, depression, self hate, and loss of reality. All of these symptoms work together to destroy the teens chance at a happy healthy life and unless they seek help, it will become difficult for them to go about everyday life. Another Serious issue is addiction. Substance abuse become the number one priority to a teens life, it begins to take over their life, preventing them from concentrating on anything else. It also destroy brain cells and weakens the brain, resulting in a lowered cognitive ability.
How is the adult brain Changing and developing? The adult brain has reached its optimal potential and will only go downhill from here. The brain’s emotional response to things in everyday life is useful to make intuitive choices in everyday life to help us stay alive. This has been perfected over millions of years of evolution. Emotions allow us to consider potential results of decision before we actually make them.
What influences adult brain development? The one thing impacting our lives that we cannot change is our genetic makeup. For example, in the video we watched, Lauren had a family history of chronic depression and it started at age 14 and continued all the way until her 20s which was when she finally got medical help and got her life back on track after a suicidal period. She would not have had to waste so much of her life in sadness if it weren’t for her genetics, her life would have fallen into place earlier if she didn’t have chronic depression.
What do experts say about adult brain development? Experts say that it is possible to influence and prevent negative brain development in adults by providing them with the right treatment. For example, if an adult has just experienced something traumatic and are at risk for developing PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder) than it would be beneficial for them be given Beta-Blocker as soon as they arrive in the ER and 4 times a day afterwards which can block the results of certain types of adrenaline released during a fight or flight response. It is important to prevent PTSD as it makes all of a person’s emotions spin out of control which can impact their ability to think and make decisions. Emotions are very important for an adult in order to make choices that positively affect their lives.
How do experiences influence adult brain development? Experiences during adulthood PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder) from something like an accident or witnessing a crime. Usually the brain determines whether a fight or flight response is needed in a situation when the amygdala sees something it panics, even for the little things, the frontal cortex determines whether the amygdala should continue to stress or if it needs to be calmed down. When a person has experienced something that causes PTSD, the cortex is held hostage by the PTSD and is unable to calm the person down when the amygdala panics, which is why the person remains scared for long periods of time and is hard to calm back down.
What are some major negative factors in adult brain development? One major problem outlined in the video was that of Marvin, who had experienced a stroke 23 years earlier and his family was told that he would never return to normal. The awareness of feeling usually follows milliseconds after the emotion is created, but Marvin’s body had destroyed all the cells in this region of his body during the stroke and he could therefore not experience emotion anymore. This causes him to become very indecisive as decisions are decided upon by emotional outcomes such as happy or sad, but because he lacks the ability to actually feel the emotions his body makes, he has a hard time making decisions.Johnny Cortez cannot get over his crippling fear even after a year after an accident that triggered his PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder). Clinical studies show that Johnny's traumatic memories are not just memories that are remembered, but rather experienced as if they were actually happening all over again. All the symptoms of the fight or flight fear response are there, like increased heart rate and sweaty palms for example. Also-Lauren's depression.
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