Advanced Higher History Notes for Essays

Daniel Cormack
Flashcards by Daniel Cormack, updated more than 1 year ago
Daniel Cormack
Created by Daniel Cormack over 5 years ago
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Advanced Higher History essay plans for History.

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To what extent have criticisms of Jefferson Davis as a wartime leader been exaggerated? - Context - On paper, JD appears to have had ideal exp in order to be successful wartime leader of Confed. - As well as serving as Senator in Mississippi, he had served as West Point trained officer in army. - Had been regarded as one of the most capable secretaries of war in antebellum period.
To what extent have criticisms of Jefferson Davis as a wartime leader been exaggerated? - Context - Although he appeared to have exp necessary to conquer his rival Lincoln and the Union, nevertheless Lincoln led the Union to victory as Confed were defeated. - Prompted debate regarding JD's leadership skills and whether or not criticisms made against him as a wartime leader were exaggerated. - David Donald, Clement Eaton - argue criticisms have been exaggerated, due to him making best out of a bad situation. - Tulloch/McPherson - criticisms justified due to poor leadership style.
JD's Political Leadership - JD played imp role politically in 1861 - he was selected by Confed Congress to become Pres of the Confed. - Appointment was largely political and was chosen to oppose both moderate and radical factions in Congress. - Pol team put in place - viewed as success - eg appt of Alexander Stephens as Vice Pres in attempt to further strengthen Confed's moderate image.
JD's Political Leadership - As well as this, 6 cabinet posts were distributed among each state bar Mississippi so that appts were geo balanced. - However, must be noted there was a high turnover rate in cabinet, six secs of war during course of war, shows he may have failed to cement relationships with his colleagues.
JD's Political Leadership - Acc to Farmer, those in support of Davis argue the high turnover rate was not down to feuds between Davis and his secs, but from congressional criticisms that forced him to accept criticisms. - David Donald believes most of criticism veered towards JD in terms of his stint as Confed president simply fails to take account of the difficulties he forced in his position. - Also outlined no other Southern pol leader had as big a stature as him. - Also suggestions that Davis failed to manage certain factions of Confed govt.
JD's Political Leadership - Viewed as having failed to establish good working relationships with many of his colleagues and argued with military commanders and politicians. - Davis' wife, Varina, highlighted how she hoped her husband would be appointed commanding general of Confed and not its president, when taking into account her husband's strengths. - She simply believed he lacked competency to be a politician. - William Davis - complements view - emphasises how Davis appeared to lack ability and charisma of other politicians, and that he was very important in reconciling differences between other politicians. - George Rable - Davis was not up to the challenge of being a pol leader and lacked ability to develop crucial political talents which were essential for an effective president.
Davis' Military Leadership - JD favoured off.def strategy on battlefield, which was seen to seize opps to take the offensive and manipulate enemy by placing them in a difficult situation. - Such situations were rare, bu when best generals was on scene - Robert Lee - the seized these opps. However, North had adv over South due to its vast resources, stronger economy and powerful navy.
Davis' Military Leadership - Tulloch - Dais concentrated all mil decisions on himself and acted as military dictator - strategies all wrong. - Clement Eaton - raised issue that it was almost impossible for Davis to win people over. This is because if JD acted defensively, he was seen as a military dictator, but if cautious on attack, he was regarded as feeble-minded.
JD's Personality and Personal Experiences - Been defended by key figures from Civil War for coming to presidency with military and admin experience, unlike Lincoln did with Union. - This was argued to give Davis a more realistic view of the situation than most other Southerners. - Became a public figure during war by touring the South to rekindle faith in his leadership - important because clearly trying to hard to keep Confed together and could be reason why Confed held on for as long as it did.
JD's Personality and Personal Experiences - Robert Lee held Davis in high regard - nobody could have done better job than JD did. - Appt of Davis - seen to exemplify military good sense and his granting of freedom to R Lee showed his loyalty to friends. - Eg, in first year of war, Lee was not met with public approval - but Davis placed trust in him by appt him Commander of Army and Lee repaid by being regarded as one of the greatest generals of modern times. - Arguably without his main management skills - Confed would not have held out for so long - so criticisms may have been exaggerated. - McPherson - Davis was not a mil genius, but was a better strategist than most of his generals.
JD's Personality and Personal Experiences - Ability to judge character effectively - As Sec of War, he gained knowledge of officers available to him to choose for leadership roles in Confed Army. - Contrasted with Lincoln - he did not give out pol appointments. - Lincoln had lack of mil exp upon commencement of presidency. - But JD's personality was criticised. - Although people clambered to senate to hear Davis' farewell speech, Harry Williams says his public speaking skills seemed to elude him as Pred of Confed. - He appeared unable to communicate clearly the moral justification for a sep nation and never said anything anyone could remember.
Abolitionist Essay - How successful? - Context - Ab movement had been growing from the origins of American republic as men such as Thomas Jefferson realised slavery did not bode well with Christianity. - Was recognised by some that slavery was immoral and ab movement was founded on basis that all men were born equal. - Although abolitionist feelings had been strong in the 1820s, it did not come to prominence until 1830s. Maj of abs supported gradual emancipation. - Historians - Argue it was success - Waldo Martin Jr, Cotton. - Historians - Argue it was unsuccessful - McPherson and Tulloch.
Abolitionist Essay - William Lloyd Garrison - Key figure in ab movement - founded ab newspaper "The Liberator". - Brought up in Massachusetts, son of immigrants. As he grew older older - became part of the ab mov and associated with American Colonisation Soc which believed free Blacks should imm to territory in Africa.
Abolitionist Essay - William Lloyd Garrison - Jan 1831 - published "The Liberator" and used this to advocate immediate emancipation of all slaves. Used argument that Americans were entitled to liberty and happiness. - Tulloch - abolitionists who were influenced by Garrison attempted to fight political evil of slavery through rejection of politics. - Such examples were by seeking change but not working with the Rep Party and this arguably marginalised their cause. Valid - as it was clear that Garrison was going against the religious views and patriotism of most of his fellow Northerners, so he could not obtain max support as possible, eg Rep supporters.
Abolitionist Essay - William Lloyd Garrison - Cotton - although radical, his non- violent nature and approach with The Liberator led many Northerners to support him. - As well as this, his rejection of Constitution appealed to those disillusioned with politics. - Therefore, he was largely successful - weigh up both sides.
Abolitionist Essay - Frederick Douglass - Rose to prominence after escaping slavery. - Born into family where his mother was a slave and his father was his mother's owner. - He learned to read and write after escaping to the North and becoming a plantation field hand. - Settled and became involved in the Massachusetts anti-slavery society and became an instant success. - Much like Garrison, he founded his own newspaper titled "North Star" and this put forward an anti-slavery message. - Could be argued that Douglass was extremely influential in the ab movement.
Abolitionist Essay - Frederick Douglass - Waldo Martin JR - "He served not only as a race leader and spokesman, but as a symbol of people's continuing freedom struggle...Over time the emblematic character of his life and thought has grown." - This exemplifies the importance of Douglass and his background bc as an ex-slave he gained greater attention and he was a majority contributor to growth of the abolitionist movement. - Tulloch - Douglass was one of the only abs to play a prominent role in supporting women's rights - this helped garner signif female support.
Abolitionist Essay - Frederick Douglass - However, Maurice Lee - establishment of North Star created divides in ab movement bc many abs, like Garrison, believed it was absurd for an ex-slave to think he could be a successful editor of a newspaper. - As a result, Douglass successful bc he could use the injustice he suffered to argue for a fairer society, but his establishment of his on newspaper caused controversy.
Abolitionist Essay - Uncle Tom's Cabin - Novel which came out in 1852, written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. - Novel came about after enactment of Fugitive Slave Act, which set out to return African Americans escaped from slavery in South back into captivity. - Info gathered by visiting plantation and expressing experiences in fictional manner. - McPherson - book struck nerve among South and prompted an array of publications emphasising the harsh nature of slavery, he also argues the political influence of the novel is immeasurable as one cannot point to the votes it changed or laws it inspired. - Justifiable - bc religious aspect of the novel led to readers linking the struggle of one of the characters, Tom, with the injustice Jesus suffered, changing outlook many had on peculiar institution.
Abolitionist Essay - John Brown Attacks - Rad abolitionist believed that fights - with arms - was only possible way to overthrow institution of slavery. - He had previously fought pro-slavery forces with his sons, one of them died. - He had a vision to see over the mass uprising of slaves and joined forces with other abolitionists to achieve this. - Harpers Ferry Raid- summer of 1859 - most of his men helped to capture watchmen and seize weapons, in the hope local slaves would join and be supplied with weapons to fight their owners.
Abolitionist Essay - John Brown Attacks - Tulloch - after this raid, John Brown was viewed by many as a god-like figure and many biographers justified the killings on the grounds of self-defence. - McPherson - repercussions were felt for years after attack due to rage and shock it sent through the South. Could be seen to make ab movements cause take a step backwards due to controversy it created.
Abolitionist Essay - 1850 Fugitive Slave Law - Exception to Southerners being seen as standing for state's rights - this act. - It penalised officials who did not arrest a runaway slave and ensured captured Blacks had no legal power to prove their freedom. - Also imposed penalties on anyone who kept a fugitive or helped one to avoid capture. - Tulloch - disregarded North's states' rights by reinforcing fugitive slave laws which forced Northern state authorities to assist in the apprehension of runaway slaves. - Effective argument - emphasises how North had to follow rules set out in law o face discipline so even officials who disagreed with the notion of slavery had to catch slaves against their will.
Abolitionist Essay - 1850 Fugitive Slave Law - David SMith - even pro-ab newspapers had to push towards a grudging acceptance of Fug Slave Law. - Farmer - law could be perceived as even greater conflict between North and South because both Southern fire eaters and Northern abs viewed Fug Slave Law as weakest part of the compromise.
Gag Rule - As well as the Fugitive Slave Law being viewed as a political limitation by some, the gag rule was another important factor which continues to be debated. - The gag rule was a regulation which limited discussion on a particular issue, in this case the House of Representatives put forward a series of proposals to ban petitions which promoted the abolition of slavery. - Petitions were used as a means to promote the voice of the abolitionist movement and the gag rule was used to limit this.
Gag Rule - On one hand, Tulloch argues that the gag rule in congress infringed the rights of the masses and this can certainly be viewed as valid insight because of the fact it limited free speech on this area and a vast number of people attempted to flood Congress with anti-slavery petitions. - Conversely, Fogel believes that even though the gag rule limited the speech of many with abolitionist tendencies within the House, it did not stop them from speaking without constraint in other forums. - It can therefore be drawn that although the gag rule may have limited discussion about abolitionism in the House of Representatives, it failed to truly limit the speech of representatives outwith the house.
Causes of Civil War - Context - A Civ W undoubtedly one of the bloodiest wars in American history - fought between N and S states of US. - After Ab Linc became Pres, number of states seceded from Union and reps of several Southern states met to find Confed. - War broke out - after Lincoln ordered soldiers to reconquer one of North's forts in S Carolina. - Historians - McPherson, Chadwick and Charles and Mary Beard - believe slavery/Lincoln were sig cause of Civ War - due to clear div they caused between N and S. - However, Boritt, Michael Holt - 2 party system = maj cause due to emergence of strong Rep Party.
Causes of Civil War - Breakdown of 2 Party System - No of reasons for collapse of 2 party system. - The collapse of the Whig Party constituted the first phase of realignment - this collapse was due to fact there were splits in party about the issue of slavery and its expansion. - Rep Party - took adv of decline in votes among Whigs and Dems, as following the compromise of 1850 and Kansas Crisis, these parties began to fracture along regional lines. - Boritt argues - party realignment of 1850s had sig role in coming of a Civil War because he believes this escalated sectional crisis and this caused Whig Party to disappear and Dems to weaken. - Complemented by that of Michael Holt - argues that key cause of Civ War was collapse of 2 party system bc it aggravated a loss of faith in the normal political party process in meeting the needs of voters. Valid view - emphas lack of trust many Ams had in the pol process ad how sec crisis escalated.
Causes of Civil War - Slavery - Prior to Civil War - many Southerners felt their states' rights were being ignored. - The agrarian South largely used slaves on large plantations and to undertake other roles. - It was interwoven into Southern economy bc slaves could be sold or rented in order to pay debts. - On the contrary, the North had gradually began to abolish slavery and recognized importance of immigration as they could act as cheaper labour - this diminished need for slavery in the North - Can definitely be stated there was a clear divide among both N and S arguably a reason for coming of the Civ War.
Causes of Civil War - Slavery - Pres Lincoln - no doubt about cause of war - believes the issue of slavery and actions of the South led directly to war. Certainly valid view as many historians reiterate these sentiments, including McPherson. - Argues that North's continued animosity towards the South regarding slavery was an imp factor in cause of the Civil War, due to South relying on slavery for their economic security whereas the North was in complete contrast to the South and welcome emancipation of all slaves. - Anther argument laid out is the notion of a Black Republican conspiracy to overthrow slavery and the soc of the South had taken hold - created sectional paranoia.
Causes of Civil War - Slavery - However, Alexander Stephens - war had not been fought on South's part in defence of slavery, but on constitutional principle of defence of state's rights. - William Gienapp does not fully believe the claim slavery was the main cause of Civil War because he argues breakdown of 2 party system was more sig than slavery. - This is bc he believed third parties in system allowed extremists to agitate sectional conflict and may have been silenced had 2 party sys not broken down.
Causes of Civil War - Role of Lincoln as President - As many of the old Whig Party followers joined with the Know Nothings and other groups who were opposed to slavery, the formation of the Rep Party was significant. - Ab Lincoln won 1860 election and primarily against Southern values. Sought to win back support from states who seceded from the Union, but South's reaction was negative so first shots of war came about. - This was because Lincoln agreed to send relief and the South knew that with food, they could hold Fort Sumter indefinitely.
Causes of Civil War - Role of Lincoln as President - Sig debate surrounding extent to which Lincoln provoked South into firing first shots of war. - Farmer - Southerners actually viewed election of Lincoln as the final straw and most of the South were under the belief that the Republicans' policy was to attack slavery and create society where Whites and Blacks were equal. - This did not bode well in the deep South. - Bruce Chadwick - although other factors such as slavery were important Lincoln's election proved to be icing on Southern secession cake as most supported secession after appointment of Lincoln.
Causes of Civil War - Economy - The tariff, duty to be paid on certain imports and exports was important economic factor which caused sectional tension over territorial expansion - Whilst North industrialised, South became more committed to cotton, so tariff was seen to be more beneficial in N than in S. - Southern opposition to tariff arguably grew as tariff duties were pushed higher. For N, tariffs seen to protect its industries and jobs from foreign competition., but for S tariff was seen as transferring wealth from South to North due to higher prices for goods. - David Potter - even though tariff caused great divide between N and S, it was not as serious as issue of slavery so can't be viewed as majority cause of Civ War.
Causes of Civil War - Economy - Charles and Mary Beard - N was driven mainly by economic motives and consequently war had resulted from friction generated by an agrarian economy and the developing urban economy of the North on the other hand.
Slavery - Benign or Harsh? - Context - Slavery had become engrained in the social, political and economical structure of the antebellum South. - Debate - was it system of pitiless exploitation or was it more of a welfare state arrangement, putting the needs of slaves first by providing protection from birth until death.
Slavery - Benign or Harsh? - Slave Diet - In terms of diet of slaves, most gained access to basic nutritional foods and typical diet consisted of cornmeal, seasonal veg and offal. - Eg, Landon Carter, a Virginian planter served meat other than offal to reward slaves performing well and to induce slaves to work. - Benign as hard working slaves rewarded for the effort they put in. - F and E - slave diet provided around 4185 calories and slaves were fed adequately. Found standard of living was similar to that of White labourers at the time. - Dale Swan - acknowledged nutritional value of a slave's diet was lacking, so demonstrates harsh side of slavery as typically slaves had many vitamin deficiencies and diet was monotonous.
Slavery - Benign or Harsh? - Living Conditions - Seen to be superior to what some free Americans had in 1890s. - Slaves tended to be given an area of the plantation for their living quarters and on some plantations the owners provided housing, but on others, slaves had to build their own homes. - A lot of the houses were built like those from Africa and these were deemed to give African- AM slaves a sense of belonging. - Stampp - life for a slave was incredibly difficult and shelter provided to slaves was poor and minimalistic. This depended on character of mother. - F and E - masters ensured that slave cabins were cleaned regularly and plantation grounds were cleaned thoroughly. Promotes view slavery was benign due to slaves being looked after by master. - Stampp again - slave owners only provided the min level of support as possible, can conclude they were merely concerned with profit rather than welfare of slaves.
Slavery - Benign or Harsh? - Working Patterns - Slavs were claimed to not have to work as hard as free Americans and progression opportunities existed for slaves who did work hard. - Farmer - most slaves did not work on Sundays and received a fair amount of holidays, 1/2 days were even possible. - There was a hierarchy which developed career structure. Slaves could pick up new skills and become slave drivers themselves. - Highlights how owners used carrot as a source of motivation to the stick - slaves could reap rewards of working hard. - This could lead to better food, clothing, hols etc in return for slave's work. - Fogel - slaveholders aimed to make a profit so sought to extract the max amount of work for the lowest cost. - Slaves such as women, children and disabled had to still work and were subject to constant supervision. - Peter Parish - highlights nature of slave's work - states slaves actually worked longer hours with fewer days off than industrial workers - so labour was both intensive and extensive.
Emergence of Republicans - Context - From 1830s to early 1850s, Dems and Whigs drew on national support rather than sectional support. - By early 1850s collapse of second party system occured and reps emerged to challenge Dems with Whigs in decline. - Rep Party formed in Northern states in 1854 and quickly became main opposition to Dems.
Emergence of Republicans - Kansas Nebraska Act - Nebraska lagrely unsettled in early 1850s and unless Congress arranged area into a territory, land could not be put up for sale. - Although Southerners were unenthusiastic about Nebraska being developed, Northerners were keen to do so due to terms of Missouri Compromise - this stated that new states would enter the union as free states - belief that the act endangered national unity due to its authorisation of the expansion of slavery. - Farmer - Southern politicians were determined to delay granting of territorial status to Nebraska and this is particularly important because it emphasises level of div between N and S. - Laid foundations for Rep Party to manipulate sectional conflict with regards to slavery as dominant anti-slavery feeling in the North and increase pressure on Democrats.
Emergence of Republicans - Kansas Nebraska Act - Jan 1854 - Kansas-Neb bill introduced with popular sovereignty, notion that the authority of govt created through consent of the people, while dividing Nebraska territory into two. - Unlikely slavery would expand towards North, but still could in theory. - McPherson - By repealing ban on slavery in North, Douglas provoked a "hell of a storm" as he was not viewing slavery as a moral evil. - Can be seen to awaken slave power spectre, so Reps gained support from those disillusioned with Douglas, particularly in North.
Emergence of Republicans - Southern Political Power - Dem Party had split into N/S wings, whereby 2 candidates stood separately for their section. - Led to many Northern Dems seeking new political party as Dems were merely dominated by Southern opinion. - Beneficial for Rep Party as it would provide greater amount of potential supporters. - Nearly all Reps were opposed to slave power which was seen to be conspiring against interests of the North, likely many would turn to Reps. - However, despite Rep opp to slavery, not all supported imm ab of slavery and few believed in Black equality. - Tulloch - believed these splits were not due to conflicting principles, but as pols sought to create artificial tension to win votes. Thus, Reps were unappealing to some in North due to stance on such issues.
Emergence of Republicans - Southern Political Power (Dred Scott Case) - Case where slave who lived with owner in free state, before returning to the free state Missouri, argued time spent in these locations entitled him to emancipation. - Southern justices wanted to rule against Congress' right to ban slavery from territories and Chief Justice Taney believed Southern people were in danger. - Reps presented this decision as pro slave power, whilst Dems believed this action had stopped Rep Party dead in its tracks as many speaking out believed decision to speak out would lose support and be end of party. - McPherson expands on view of Southern Whites viewing Blacks as anomaly and how they posed a threat to stability of slavery. Taney - not all men in dec of ind were equal eg Blacks.
Emergence of Republicans - Southern Political Power (Dred Scott Case) - But, Curtis and Mclean disputed this - 5 in 13 states that ratified Constitution had Black men as legal voters. - Enhanced position of Reps as they stood in unison with this opinion of case. - Although Southerners argued decision crushed the life out of the "Black Republican" organisation, Reps actually gained signif support. - Many newspapers condemned situation and sympathised with view of case Republicans had. So instead of crippling Rep Party, decision to come out against Dred Scott case worked in party's favour and increase their popularity due to sectional conflict among Democrats.
Emergence of Republicans - Collapse of the Whigs - Issues such as nativism, anti-nebraskaism and opposition to existing parties can be argued to be central to 1854 upheaval. - Whig Party, despite opposing repeal of Missouri Compromise, faired worse in these elections than Dems due to divides in party over failure to deal with such issues. - Coalition of anti-slavery groups formed - Vast number of Whigs joined this to overthrow slave power. Led to mass support for Whigs in 1854 election. - Farmer - Whig collapse due to divisions between N and S Whigs regarding slavery. - Tulloch - KN actually was more important because it gave birth to a new Northern Rep Party.
Emergence of Republicans - Know Nothings (third party) - Served as a bridge between death of Whig Party and growth of Rep Party. - Provided a focus that destroyed Jacksonian alignment. - As Know Nothings were becoming ever so popular, anti-slavery pols launched Rep Party. - Although it may have seemed easy for Reps to gain signif support as they opposed Dems, it was a maj task for Reps to win over KN PArty, large group which would ensure victory.
Emergence of Republicans - Know Nithings (third party) - This is because KNs in free states opposed KN act - emphasised in 1854 state elections as anti-catholicism combined with opposing expanding slavery would keep Reps from dislodging dom position of KNs. - Gienapp - KNs biggest mistake was dropping its anti-Nebraska position as Reps were able to emerge as strongest anti-Dem party in N and could exploit this. - Believes Reps capitalised on growing sec tensions and made anti-slavery extension focus of their opposition. - In turn, disillusioned KNs turned to Reps.
How accurate is it to claim that Blacks made a vital contribution to the war effort on both sides during the American Civil War? Context - Blacks served in Civ War on both Union and Confed side. In Union army, over 179,000 Afr Am men served in over 160 units, as well as more serving in Navy and in support positions. This num comprised of both northern free Afr Ams and runaway slaves from South who enlisted to fight. - In Confed, Afr Ams were still slaves and they served mostly in labor positions. Extent to which Blacks appeared to make a vital contribution to war effort on both sides is subject to debate. - On one hand, McPherson and Quarles argue Blacks made vital contribution to Union army as they ensured Union remained threat during war. However, Parish argues that issue of Blacks partaking in war effort created division. As well as this, hist such as Dawson hail Black recruitment as revolutionary because it strengthened Confed caused, but blacks underpaid, so effort put in is questionable.
How accurate is it to claim that Blacks made a vital contribution to the war effort on both sides during the American Civil War? Contribution of Blacks made to the Union - Prior to the war, Lincoln faced dilemma of whether to enlist Blacks soldiers into the Union army. Maj of Northerners were opposed to Blacks fighting against Whites; and so opposed Black recruitment. Black leaders and abolitionists were also anxious as Black men fighting in a war could be seen to destroy slavery too. - Although Lincoln stood in opposition to Black recruitment, there were attempts to recruit Blacks soldiers within the Union. Eg, general Hungers raised a regiment of Black volunteers off the coast of South Carolina in early 1862. - Arguably Black recruitment was positive because it meant that regiments could support White fighting forces. This is imp because of the 46,000 Blacks of military age in the North, 33,000 joined Union forces; clearly then Blacks played a sig role in Union army due to sheer number supporting. - That being said, must be noted tht contribution of Blacks could be viewed as limited because of the 37k soldiers who died, with only 3000 being killed in combat and rest dying of disease.
How accurate is it to claim that Blacks made a vital contribution to the war effort on both sides during the American Civil War? - According to Farmer, the fact that Black soldiers had fought for freedom bolstered Black confidence and pride. In addition to this, he argues that mil service also carried with it the assumption of US citizenship. This is imp because it highlights how Blacks felt they played a sig role within army, especially because of the sense of belonging and national identity they felt. Paludan complements this view when he states that Blacks saw mil service as a way of gaining citizenship. - However, whilst Farmer contends that Black troops aided Union war effort at a crit time when N Whites were increasingly reluctant to fight, the imp of Black soldiers on outcome of the war should not be exaggerated. Whilst this has some merit, it must be noted that by 1865 there were nearly as many Black soldiers in arms against Confed as there were White soldiers defending it. - As a result, clear from stats that Blacks played vital role in supporting Whit men in the war effort.
How accurate is it to claim that Blacks made a vital contribution to the war effort on both sides during the American Civil War? Contributions of Blacks in terms of Confederacy - It could be said that S was a clear contrast to the N, as generally most Blacks remained slaves throughout the war. As Blacks made up more than a third of Confed's population, they could be viewed as a group which contributed signif to the war effort. - Although many Blacks did not contribute militarily, they worked in factories and mines and ensured railways were maintained. As well as this, it must be noted many S states passed laws which enabled them to conscript slaves for military labour. In 1863 the Confed Congress passed a general impressment law, which meant that slaves played an imp mil role by helping behind the lines. - It could therefore be argued that utilisation of slave labour enabled S to fight on longer than would have otherwise been poss. This is clearly imp because according to Dawson, Afr Am recruitment in S was a rad step which strengthened Confed caused.
w accurate is it to claim that Blacks made a vital contribution to the war effort on both sides during the American Civil War? - However, despite courage and contribution of negro soldiers, a large number of Black troops were subjected to injustices. Even as late as 1864 many Black troops were sometimes assaulted by mobs of Whites and were reported to be subject to intense labour which made many Black soldiers fatigued. - Even though S Carolina and Massachusetts regiments had enlisted under a War Department promise that Blacks would receive the same pay as White soldiers, they had no legal auth to make such a promise. Only law applying specifically to black soldiers was Militia Act of 1862 which ensured Blacks received $10 per month, however White privates received $13 per month plus a $3.50 clothes allowance and this deeply angered Black soldiers. - Arguably this could be seen to have demotivated many Blacks because they were carrying out similar roles to Whites, but getting paid less. This could have meant Blacks put in less effort due to poor treatment received, thus meaning their contribution was not as vital.
w accurate is it to claim that Blacks made a vital contribution to the war effort on both sides during the American Civil War? - An example of this is taken from a Private who wrote in a letter "Why are we not worth as much as White soldiers? We do the same work they do and do what they cannot. We fight as well as they do." - In addition, many slaves took opp to escape from Confed - with an est 500,000 slaves fleeing to join the Union army which had a dev effect on Souths economy. Although it must be recognised there were no major slave rebellions within the Confed, the extent to which this is imp is debatable.
w accurate is it to claim that Blacks made a vital contribution to the war effort on both sides during the American Civil War? Battle of Fort Pillow - This battle can be examined in order to assess contribution of Black troops, primarily with the Union. - April 12 1864 Gen Forrest led his 2500 men against Union held forts and ensured Union were driven to a deadly crossfire. Casualties were high and many reports state it as a "massacre" due to sheer number of Bl deaths. - Mcph contends that after Fort Pillow, Blacks were encouraged to fight harder as they feared consequences of being captured by Confeds. Arg this battle emph the sheer courage that Bl soldiers had because it proved the extent of their willingness to fight for a cause, and it was proven that their contribution was of high imp to Union in battle. - However, Parish rubbishes this view when he states that this battle exemps how contribution of Blacks made no real diff due to high numb of casualties suffered. Thus, it is clear there are contrasting views. - THEN CONCLUDE!
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