AS Archaeology - Unit 1 - 31 Key Definitions - Section A - AQA **INCOMPLETE**

Rebecca Giddings
Flashcards by Rebecca Giddings, updated more than 1 year ago
Rebecca Giddings
Created by Rebecca Giddings over 5 years ago
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31 Definitions for AS Archaeology ARCH1 exam, Section A.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Ancestor/Ancestor Cult Definition - Belief dead ancestors watch over us & take active roles in events - Can intervene in daily life & be unpredictable - May need appeasing or be asked for help
Ancestor/Ancestor Cult Example West Kennet (long barrow) Handling of bones - regular due to ware; normally rough whereas these were smooth. Separated into piles.
Animism Definition - Belief in spirits - Animals/plants/objects/special places believed to have spirits - Spirits take an active part in life - May need appeasing or to be asked for help
Animism Example N/A
Art and Iconography Definition N/A
Art and Iconography Example N/A
Cremation Definition - Act of burning human remains (after death) - Type of funerary/mortuary ritual - Purify the dead & release the soul
Cremation Example N/A
Excarnation Definition - Deliberate defleshing of the bones - Occurs naturally (exposure to elements/'special animals') or by hand - Can form part of ritual practice
Excarnation Example Holme-next-to-the-sea Upturned tree stump in centre of 60 timbers believed to be an excarnation table
Focus of attention Definition - Criteria of Refrew & Bahn - Part of ritual site that catches attention - Bring focus to key part of the site; facilitates ritual taking place - Can be through layout/design means
Focus of attention Example West Kennet - Adult males; end chamber at end of narrow corridor (1st thing to be seen); signify importance - Large mound; stands out from landscape, indicate the sites presence
Funerary ritual Definition N/A
Funerary ritual Example N/A
Grave goods Definition N/A
Grave goods Example N/A
Inhumation Definition - Burying of a body in the ground - Ritual practice - Mortuary practice - Remove taint of putrefying flesh from living community
Inhumation Example N/A
Liminal Definition - Boundary zone between one world and the next (portal/gateway) - Living may communicate with the dead - Limbo between worlds that can be dangerous
Liminal Example N/A
Magic Definition N/A
Magic Example N/A
Monotheism Definition - Worshipping & belief in one God; oversees all aspects of life - No belief in a pantheon of Gods
Monotheism Example N/A
Myth Definition N/A
Myth Example N/A
Pilgram Definition - Person undertaking a special journey to a religious place for worship - Possible special route - May pray/complete religious activities on the way
Pilgrim Example Thornborough - Cumbrian axe head (500/600m, Northern henge) from lake district (80 miles away) - Brought by pilgrim?
Polytheism Definition - Belief in multiple deities - May be responsible for different aspects of life (eg: Poseidon, God of the sea) - May be responsible for day-to-day concerns & spiritual concerns - Deities may form a 'pantheon' (group)
Polytheism Example Gundestrup cauldron 4 Gods & 4 Goddesses - tell an important story/belief?
Prayer/participation Definition N/A
Prayer/participation Example N/A
Priest/Ritual Specialist Definition N/A
Priest/Ritual Specialist Example N/A
Propitiation/Votives Definition N/A
Propitiation/Votives Example N/A
Purity & Cleansing Definition - Removal of sin/dirtiness/taint (washing away impurities) - Make something/someone acceptable to deities/spirits --> to enter afterlife
Purity & Cleansing Example Excarnation form of this. Holme-next-to-the-sea; upturned tree stump = excarnation table?
Rites of passage Definition N/A
Rites of passage Example N/A
Rites of intensification Definition - Time of discomfort/stress for community (eg; death of important person/natural disaster) - Feelings become intense & event takes place - Aim to return community to normality
Rites of intensification Example West Kennet - Bones used in many rituals (before being sealed away) which is evident by smoothness of bones - Significant importance on people 'buried' in the tomb
Ritual Definition - Repeated acts carried out in accordance with beliefs - Occur at special times, special places - May need special clothes, equipment, words & movements
Ritual Example West Kennet - Bones in side communal tomb; smooth (indicates repeated handling) - Ritual linked to ancestor cult; appeasement of ancestors occurred regularly & repeatedly
Ritual feasting Definition N/A
Ritual feasting Example N/A
Sacrifice Definition N/A
Sacrifice Example N/A
Sensory experience Definition N/A
Sensory experience Example N/A
Shamanism Definition N/A
Shamanism Example N/A
Shrine/Temple/Ritual structure Definition N/A
Shrine/Temple/Ritual structure Example N/A
Symbolism Definition - Presentation of abstract idea (difficult to express) - Image or symbol - Help to understand ritual belief; especially in non-literate societies - Give sense of belonging/identity
Symbolism Example Venus Figurines Willendorf; symbolizes mother goddess --> exaggerated reproductive features
Totemism Definition - Special relationship: between a group & special animal spirits, can represent community or be sacred - May be rules about how animal is treated - Animal spirit may guide/protect its people
Totemism Example N/A
Worldview Definition - A set of ideas - Way of looking at the world > Explains our place in relation to physical & supernatural (spiritual) worlds - Ideas often influence ritual structures - Provides origin explanations
Worldview Example N/A
Worship Definition N/A
Worship Example N/A
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