Ch. 2 Research Method Flashcards

Flashcards by Alex Vazquez, updated more than 1 year ago
 Created by Alex Vazquez over 5 years ago
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 Question Answer Ethical Principles for Animal Research Research must have a clear, scientific purpose. Provide humane living conditions. Legally obtain animals. Least amount of suffering. Standard Diviation Shows how far scores vary from the mean (average) score 68-95-99.7 Rule Means 68% of the scores fall within one standard deviation of the mean (average) 95% of all scores fall within two standard deviations of the mean. 99.7 of all scores fall within three standard deviations of the mean. Normal Distribution Forms a bell-shaped or symmetrical curve (upside down U) Mode The most frequently occurring score Median Divided by the number of scores. Mean The average or sum of the set of scores. Operational Definitions Statement of your procedure; identifies the IV and DV, sampling and assignment. Dependent Variable What is being measured in an experiment Random assignment Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance Cross sectional study Compares individuals at various ages at ONE POINT in time (one and done) Longitudinal Study Studies a single individual or a group over an extended period of time. Zero Correlation indicates there is No relationship between two variables Negative Correlation -1; Means two move in opposite direction. Positive Correlation Means two variables move in the same direction. Positive relationship between smoking and lung cancer Correlation Coefficient A number value that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. Correlation studies Researchers observe or measure a relationship between variables. Participant bias Tendency for participant to respond in a certain way because they respond in a certain way because they know they are being observed. Researcher Bias Tendency for researchers to look for evidence that supports their hypothesis & ignore contradictory evidence Surveys Descriptive method; uses questionnaires or interviews Skewed Distribution Distribution with most scores squeezed to one end, few scores stretch out like tail. Reliability Consistency or repeatability of results. Taking a test and seeing if the results can be repeated Random Selection Choosing of members of a population so that every individual has an equal chance of being chosen for a sample Quasi Experiment Measurement of dependent variable when random assignment to groups of a randomly selected sample is not possible. Quantitative Data Information can be reported as numbers for ease of handling. Population All of the individuals in the group to which the study applies. A sample is a subgroup of the population the participates in the study. Placebo Physical or psychological treatment given to the control group that resembles the treatment given to the experimental group, but contains no active ingredients. Naturalistic Observation Observing & recording behavior in naturally occurring situation situations w/o trying to manipulate and control the situation Inferential Statistics Statistics used to interpret data and draw conclusions Hypothesis Prediction of how two or more factors are likely to be related. And can be tested. Experimental Group Group that you are experimenting on, and is receiving the independent variable. Experiment Research Method that involves manipulation of an independent variable Ethical guidelines for human research Informed consent, voluntary participation, debriefing, and confidentiality. Descriptive Statistics Numbers that summarize a set of research data from a sample. Confounding variables Factors that cause differences between the experimental group and the control group other than the independent variable. Central Tendency Describes average of a distribution. Case Studies Research technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles EX Phineas Gage Hindsight Bias Knowing something would happen before it did. Overconfidence Being sure of a fact and later finding out the subject was different and made more errors than though. Scientific Method A systematic, step-by-step procedure psychologist use when conducting a research. By doing this psychologist seek to find a cause and effect from variables they test. Case study A type of observational data collection technique Illusory Correlation Sometimes people believe that there is a relationship between events and variables. an example is recalling bad experiences with lawyers and only remembering the bad ones leading to think that all lawyers are bad.

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