AP Psychology Research Methods

Sarah Baldwin
Flashcards by Sarah Baldwin, updated more than 1 year ago
Sarah Baldwin
Created by Sarah Baldwin over 5 years ago


AP Psychology research methods

Resource summary

Question Answer
Case Studies research technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles (ex: Phineas Gage)
Central Tendency average of a distribution
Confounding Variables factors that cause differences between experimental group and control group other than the independent variable
Naturalistic Observation the researcher allows behavior to occur without interference or intervention at all
Descriptive Statistics numbers that summarize a set of research data from a sample
Ethical Guidelines for Human Research 1) informed consent 2) voluntary participation 3) debriefing 4) confidentiality
Experiment research method that involves manipulation of an independent variable under controlled conditions; only method that shows cause and effect
Experimental Group group that you experiment on; receives independent variable
Hypothesis prediction of how 2 or more factors are likely to be related (an educated guess)
Inferential Statistics used to interpret data and draw conclusions
Normal Distribution represented by a normal (bell) curve; mean, median, and mode all equal
Placebo physical/psychological treatment given to control group that represents the treatment given to experimental group; however, no active ingredients
Population all of the individuals in the group to which the study applies
Quantitative Data information can be reported as numbers for ease of handling
Quasi-experiment measure of dependent variable when random assignment to groups isn't possible; can suggest cause and effect
Random Assignment division of the sample in an experiment into groups so that every individual has an equal chance of being chosen (not possible for studies)
Random Selection every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen for any group
Reliability consistency of results (when repeated, results are the same)
Skewed Distribution most scores squeezed into one end of distribution, "tail" made up of others; positively skewed if tail points right, negative if tail points left
Surveys descriptive method; questionnaires or interviews
Researcher Bias tendency for researchers to look for evidence that supports their hypothesis (ignore evidence that contradicts)
Participant Bias tendency for participants to respond in a certain way because they know they're being observed
Correlation Studies researchers observe or measure a relationship between variables
Correlation Coefficient a number value that indicates the strength and direction of relationship between two variables
Positive Correlation +1.00; means that two variables move together in the same direction (smoking and lung cancer)
Negative Correlation -1.00; two variables move together in opposite directions (education and hard labor)
Zero Correlation indicates that there is no relationship between two variables
Longitudinal Study studies a single individual/group for an extended period of time (can be expensive and time-consuming)
Cross-sectional Study compares individuals at various ages at one point in time ("one and done")
Random Assignment assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance
Dependent Variable what is being measured in an experiment (depends on the variable)
Operational Definitions statement of procedures which includes the independent variable, dependent variable, etc.
Mean the average of a set of scores
Median The very middle of a set of scores (in order from least to greatest)
Mode a number that occurs the most often in a set of numbers
68 - 95 - 99.7 Rule 68% of all scores fall within one standard deviation of the mean, 95% fall within two standard deviations, 99.7% fall within three standard deviations
Standard Deviation shows how far scores vary from the mean
Ethical Principles for Animal Research 1) research must have a clear, scientific purpose 2) provide humane living conditions for animals 3) legally obtain animals 4) allow animals the least amount of suffering/pain
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