Psychology of Learning - Midterm 1 (Part 2)

Courtney Judd
Flashcards by Courtney Judd, updated more than 1 year ago
Courtney Judd
Created by Courtney Judd over 4 years ago


Lectures 7-8

Resource summary

Question Answer
What are the three different kinds of partial reinforcement schedules? -Ratio schedules -Interval Schedules -IRT>t and IRT<t Schedules
What is a ratio schedule of reinforcement? Specifies the number of time an individual has to do something in order to obtain a certain outcome.
What are molar feedback functions? The relationship between the rate of behavior and the rate at which an outcome is earned.
What is molecular feedback? The moment-to-moment relationship between behaviors and outcomes.
What are fixed-ratio schedules? The number of times the target behavior must occur is the same for each reinforcer. Ex. Commission
What is a radio strain? When the steps are too large or too meager between fixed-ratio schedules that the individual will show prolonged PRP.
What is PRP? Post-reinforcement pause
Why do individuals switch to a run (steady rate of behavior after a PRP) on fixed ratio schedules? -High rates of behavior produce more reinforcement -Short IRTs are differentially reinforced.
What are variable-ratio schedules? (VR n) The number of times the target behavior must occur varies around a certain average (n) Ex. slot machines
What is an interval schedule? A specific time interval after which the next behavior will produce the outcome.
what is a fixed-interval schedule? The time interval that must elapse is the same across successive reinforcers. Ex. Waiting for something to cook without a clock
What is a variable-interval schedule? The time interval that must elapse varies around a certain average (t) Ex. Trying to call a friend on the phone and getting a busy tone.
What is a limited hold? A limited time to obtain an outcome.
what is behavioral persistence? the tendency to continue to perform a behavior when that behavior no longer produces a reinforcing event. (measured by resistance to extinction)
How is behavioral persistence determined? -Amount of previous success obtaining the outcome -Discriminability -Prior experience with schedules of partial reinforcement.
What is behavioral momentum? The tendency for a behavior to persist when the reinforcement contingency is changed. (behaviors that are resistant to change have momentum)
On continuous reinforcement schedules, the bigger the reinforcer, ___ the lower the resistance to extinction
On partial schedules, large reinforcers ____ increase resistance to extinction
Free reinforcers during extinction do what? decrease discriminability and increase resistance to extinction.
Prior experience with extinction ___ decreases resistance to extinction
Signaling the transition from acquisition to extinction ___ increases discriminability and decreases resistance to extinction
What is flooding? Preventing avoidance behaviors to speed the extinction process.
What is implosion therapy? It uses flooding to reduce phobias.
What is the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect (PREE) The increases in resistance to extinction following experience with partial reinforcement.
What are respondents? behaviors elicited by stimuli and not influenced by their consequences.
what are operants? Behaviors that are influenced by their consequences and are not simply elicited by another stimulus.
What is operant conditioning of key pecking? Pecking can be shaped and maintained by positive reinforcement.
what is pavlovian conditioning of key pecking? Pigeons will peck at a key (CR) if that key illuminates (CS) prior to the delivery of food (US)
What is schedule-induced key pecking? Pecking can be elicited by the periodic presentation of food
What is Theoretical Matching Law? States that individuals allocate their time and effort based on the relative values of the available outcomes.
What is empirical matching law? The observation that individuals match their behavior to the relative rates, amounts, or immediacies of the alternative outcomes.
What are concurrent schedules of reinforcement? Two or more different schedules of partial reinforcements are simultaneously available. Ex. Side-by-side procedure Schedule-control procedure
What is Changeover Delay (COD)? After switching schedules, an individual must work for some time (usually a few seconds) before earning a reinforcer.
What is the problem of indiscriminate switching between alternative -On concurrent interval schedules, while individuals work on one schedule the other one is still advancing. -Changeover Delay (COD)
What does B stand for Behavior
What does R stand for? Reinforcement
What is temporal discounting? The value of something decreases in a nonlinear manner the further away it is in time.
What are the empirical matching law requirements? -Individuals are working on concurrent VI VI schedules with a change-over delay of a few seconds -Target behavior is the same on both schedules -Same effort to perform the target behavior on both schedules -No pre-existing preference for an option -Linear mapping of reinforcers to value.
What is bias? when an individual prefers one alternative more than would be predicted from the empirical matching law.
What is undermatching? It occurs when the relative allocation of behavior is less than predicted by the matching law.
Overmatching Occur matches an individual favors the schedule with the higher rate of reinforcement more than the empirical matching law predicts.
What is molar maximizing AKA optimization When individuals attempt to allocate their behavior to obtain the maximum gain for the least amount of effort.
What is momentary maximizing? The momentary probability of being reinforced governs the individual's behavior.
Melioration -Individuals are sensitive to the current behavioral cost of obtaining reinforcers -Individuals attempt to equalize the behavioral cost of obtaining reinforcement across the various choices. -Matching reflects the point at which these behavioral costs are roughly equivalent.
What does the rate of occurrence of a behavior depend on? Rate of occurrence of a behavior depends on both the rate of reinforcement (R) and the rate of occurrence of other outcomes (RO)
What is the significance of the matching laws? -Matching law added the law of effects in that it shows outcomes effect the behavior relative to all other behaviors and outcomes that can take place. -Allows us to construct psychological scales of value.
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