Personality Psychology Chapter 3

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Macewan University Psychology 233 Personality Psychology : Domains of knowledge about human nature 5th edition R.J. Larsen, D.M Buss

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comprehensive taxonomy of traits a system that includes all major personality traits
traits have either internal (hidden) motivations or purely descriptive
3 causal way to describe a person (internal trait) wants, needs, desires
internal desire influences external behaviour
Two basic formulas of personality 1. internal dispositions of influence 2. descriptive summaries expressed behaviour
traits that are categories of acts dominance, impulsiveness
3 elements of Act Frequency Research Program 1.Act Nomination: Organizing traits into categories+cat. naming 2.Prototypicality Judgement:centralizing important traits in cat. 3.Recording of Act Performance: Self-Report, observer report
Disadvantages of Act Frequency Approach 1. Context of trait, degree of relevance 2. Failures and Covert acts are not recorded 3.
advantages of Act Frequency Approach 1. links behavioural patterns+traits 2. meaning of traits that are difficult to study 3. helps identify domains 4. predict life events
lexical approach all traits listed +defined in dictionary form basis of describing differences among ppl
statistical approach factor analysis/other stats. procedures to identify major traits
theoretical approach researchers rely on theories to identify traits
lexical hypothesis all important individual diff. have become encoded w/in natural language
synonym frequency an attribute has not merely 1 or 2 trait adj. to describe it, instead w/ many words
Cross-cultural universality a trait will transcend cultures +codified an important trait
disadvantage w/ lexical approach 1. does not take into account nouns, adverbs, adjectives
statistical approach starts w/ 1. Lexical approach 2. self-ratings reports 3. personality relevant sentences
goal of Stat approach identify a map of personality
factor analysis identifies groups of items that go together but tend not to group w/ others
factor loadings degree to w/h items correlate w/ underlying factor
Disadvantage of Factor analysis 1. If a trait is over looked, it will not show up in results
theory helps.... identify the important variables of personality
Theory of Sociosexual orientation Men and women will seek 1 of 2 diff. relationships including monogamy or promiscuity
Eysenck's Hierarchical Model of Personality PEN E=Extroversion/ Introversion N=Neuroticism/ emotional stability P=Psychoticism
biological underpinnings of Eysenck system 1. heritability: PEN traits are genetic 2. identifiable physiological substrate: identify properties of brain/ CNS = traits
Disadvantages of Eysenck System 1. more traits then the ones in PEN 2. many other traits are heritable then PEN
Cattell's Taxonomy: 16 Personality Factor System uses S-data+T-data to develop the true factors of personality=16 traits
Timothy Leary + Jerry Wiggins circular model of personality with statistical techniques
interpersonal traits Jerry Wiggins what ppl do w/ & to each other ex. temperament, character traits
interpersonal traits are also called interactions or dyaddic interactions
3 advantages of Wiggins circumplex 1. clear explicit definition of interpersonal behaviour 2. specifies relationship b/w each trait & every other trait in model 3. alerts investigators to gaps in investigation
adjacency how close traits are to each other in circumplex
bipolarity located at opposite side of circle, negatively correlate
orthogonality traits are perpendicular to each other on model are entirely unrelated
Five- factor Model of Personality OCEAN 1. Openness-intellect 2. consciousness 3. Extraversion 4. Agreeableness 5. Neurotism/stability
5-factor model Allport+Odbert (1936) combined lexical(Cattell 4,500 traits)+ statistical approach (Fiske - factor analysis)
Tupes&Christal 5 - factor M simplified 22 categories of traits to 5 - factors
NEO-PI-R Costa & McCrae Neuroticism-extroversion-openness Personality Inventory Revised
fifth factor problem involves finding a correct name for openness & intellect: lexical A. across cultures
Social attention is a cardinal feature of Extraversion
Critics of 5-Factor M. include traits from 7- factor m + 6-factor m 1. positive/negative evaluation 2. religiosity/ spirituality 3. attractiveness
traits that fall outside of 5-factor M Conventionality, Seductiveness, Manipulation, thriftiness, humorousness, integrity, femininity, religiosity, risk taking, egotism
personality-descriptive nouns Sauier 1. Dumbbell 2. Babe/cutie 3. Philosopher 4. Lawbreaker 5. Joker 6. Jock
Honesty - Humility is found in 7 languages w/ several words attached
Disadvantages of 5-Factor Model 1. neuroticism - does not pin point emotional problems
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