Basic Concepts of Organic Chemistry

Bee Brittain
Flashcards by Bee Brittain, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Bee Brittain
Created by Bee Brittain over 3 years ago


AS - Level Chemistry (11 - Basic Concepts of Organic Chemistry) Flashcards on Basic Concepts of Organic Chemistry , created by Bee Brittain on 04/17/2016.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Define the term 'Homologous Series' A homologous series of organic compounds that have the same function group and increase by CH2 with each successive member
Define what is meant by 'Functional Group' The functional group of a compound are the group atoms responsible for the characteristic properties of a compound
What does 'Aliphatic' mean? Carbon atoms are joined to each other in branched or unbranched chains
What does Alicyclic mean? Carbon atoms are joined together in a ring/cyclic structure
What does Aromatic mean? If something is aromatic then some or all of its carbon atoms are found in a benzene ring
Define Structural Isomerism Structural Isomers have the same molecular formula, but a different structural formula
What is steoreoisomerism? Stereoisomerism is when isomers have the same structural formula but a different arrangement in space
E/Z isomerism is an example of what type of isomerism? Stereoisomerism
What is cis-trans isomerism? It is a special case of E/Z isomerism in which two of the substituent groups are the same
What happens in an addition reaction? Two reactants join to form one product
What happens in a substitution reaction? What an atom/group of atoms is replaced by another atom/group of atoms
What happens in an elimination reaction? Elimination reactions involve the removal of a smaller molecule from a larger one
Empirical Formula = the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound
Structural Formula: the minimal detail that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule
Molecular Formula: the actual number of atoms present of each element in a compound
General Formula: the simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series E.g/ Alkanes = CnH2n+2
Displayed Formula: the relative positioning of atoms and the bonds between them
Skeletal Formula: the simplified organic formula, shown by removing hydrogen atoms from alkyl chains, leaving just the carbon skeleton and the associated functional groups
Describe what happens during homolyctic fission When a covalent bond breaks by homolyctic fission, each of the bonded atoms takes one of the shared pair of electrons from the bond, forming two radicals
Describe what happens during heterolyctic fission When a covalent bond breaks by heterolyctic fission, one of the bonded atoms takes BOTH the shared pair of electrons. This forms a positive ion (the atom that didn't take any electrons) and a negative ion (the atoms that took both electrons)
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