C2: Earth structure

Ella Maggs
Flashcards by Ella Maggs, updated more than 1 year ago
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All information is sourced from the Collins revision textbook, GCSE OCR Gateway B Higher.

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Question Answer
Can you describe the lithosphere? The lithosphere is the outer layer of the Earth, that sits between the crust and the top part of the mantle. This layer is cold and rigid.
The crust is too thick to drill through, name the two ways information is collected about the crust? Information is collected from seismic waves and man-made explosions.
Can you describe the mantle? The mantle is cold and rigid just below the crust, but nearer the core it is hot and able to move easily.
Why do tectonic plates move? The tectonic plates move because of convection currents. They move slowly.
Which plate is denser, the oceanic or the continental plate? The oceanic plate is denser.
Can you describe subduction? The oceanic plate is denser than the continental plate, when these plates collide. The oceanic plate sinks, taking more of the plate down with it. It partly melts as it reaches the hotter part of the mantle.
Explain the continental drift theory. This is the theory that the Earth's continents were once joined together, and were separated by convection currents moving tectonic plates.
Name two ways the continental drift theory was proven. The same types of fossils and plants are found in South America and Africa. The shape of the east coast of South America fits the west coast of Africa, a jigsaw puzzle
What kind of rock and eruption comes from runny lava? Iron - rich basalt rock, and slower/calmer volcanic eruption.
What kind of rock and eruption comes from thicker lava? Silica-rich rhyolite rock and a violent explosion.
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